Mixed Methods Approach

Associate Professor Dr. Mohd Sallehhudin Abd Aziz

Approaches to Research



Mixed Methods

Quantitative research

A type of research which the researcher decides what to study :asks specific questions; collects quantifiable data from participants ;analyze these numbers using statistics and conducts inquiry in unbiased objective manner

Types of quantitative research
  

Descriptive Experimental/Quasi Experimental Correlational

Qualitative research

A type of research in which the researcher relies on the views of participants asks broad general questions; collects data consisting largely words from participant, describes these words for themes and conducts the inquiry in subjective , biased manner

Types of Qualitative research    Interviews Observations Documents .

Mixed Method  Mixed methods procedures employ aspects of both Quantitative and Qualitative procedures .

Types of Mixed Methods Approach    Sequential Concurrent Transformative .

analyzes. and integrates both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or in multiple studies in a sustained program of inquiry (Creswell 2003) .Definition  A mixed method approach is one in which the researcher collects.

Mixed methods research methods     Both predetermined and emerging methods Both open ended and closed-ended questions Multiple forms of data drawing on all possibilities Statistical and text analysis .

The situation today is less qualitative versus quantitative more how research practices lie somewhere on a continuum .

A research continuum qualitative quantitative .

Characteristics of Quantitative/Qualitative research Quantitative Approach Sample size:n Measurable Qualitative Approach Sample size is not a concern Interpretive Report Statistical Analysis Report rich narrative .

Characteristics of Quantitative/Qualitative research Basic element of analysis is numbers Basic element of analysis is words Researcher is separate Researcher is part of process Subjects Participants Hypotheses Research questions .

Which approach to adopt?    The research problem The researcher The audience .

Why use mixed methods?     Validity – to corroborate Quan and Qual data Offset – offset weaknesses of Quan and Qual and draw on strengths Completeness – more comprehensive account that Qual or Quan alone Process – Quan provides outcomes. the processes . Qual.

Why use mixed methods?    Explanation – Qual can explain Quan results or vice-versa Instrument development – Qual employed to design instrument Credibility – both approaches enhance integrity of findings .

Why use mixed methods?    You want the strength of multiple methods triangulation Rigorous mixed methods studies provide the opportunity to efficiently generate greater understanding answer a broader and more complete range of questions Use the strengths of an additional method to overcome the weakness in another .

Weaknesses     More complex Resource intensive Time intensive Complexity in relation to data collection and analysis .

Strategies of enquiries Quantitative Qualitative Mixed Methods Experimental Designs Descriptive Correlational Ethnographies Case Studies Narratives Sequential Concurrent Transformative .

Mixed Methods: Concurrent  Concurrent Mixed Method Design is a design in which both Qualitative and Quantitative data area collected and analyzed to answer the research questions (Qualitative and Quantitative) .

Mixed Methods: Concurrent CONCURRENT Equal Dominant Qualitative + Quantitative QUALITATIVE + quantitative QUANTITATIVE + quantitative .

Concurrent mixed model design  Multi strand mixed design in which they are two relatively independent strands/phases: one with QUAL questions and data collection and analysis techniques and the other with QUAN questions and data collection and analysis techniques .

Concurrent mixed method design  A multi strand design in which both QUAL and QUAN data are collected and analyzed to answer a single type research question (QUAL or QUAN) .

Mixed Methods: SEQUENTIAL SEQUENTIAL Equal QUAN QUAL Dominant QUAN QUAL qual quan .

QUAN) provides a basis for the collection of another type of data (e.SEQUENTIAL  Sequential mixed method is a design in which one type of data (e.g.g. QUAL) It answers one type of question (Qual or Quan) by collecting and analyzing two types of data (QUAL or QUAN) .


Procedures/Instruments Quantitative Instrument based questions Qualitative Open ended questions Interview data Text and image data Mixed Methods Both open closed –ended questions Statistical and text analysis .


A Qualitative Format Introduction Statement of the problem Purpose of the study Research Questions Limitations  Review of Literature Theoretical Framework ROL\Conceptual framework  .

observational forms  .Methods Characteristics of qualitative research Role of the researcher Data collection procedures Data analysis procedures Strategies for validating findings Preliminary pilot findings Appendixes: research questions.

A Quantitative Format Introduction Statement of the problem Purpose of the study Theoretical Perspective Research Questions or hypotheses Limitations  .

population and subjects Data collection instruments and material Data analysis procedures (Statistical tools) Preliminary studies/pilot tests Appendixes: instruments  .Quantitative Format cont… Review of Literature  Method Type of research design Sample.

A Mixed Methods Format Introduction Statement of the problem Purpose of the study (both qualitative and quantitative statements and rationale for mixing methods) Research Questions (Both qualitative and quantitative) Review of literature  .

A Mixed Method Format cont… Methods Characteristics of mixed methods research Visual model and procedures of the design Data collection procedure types of data sampling strategy Data analysis and validity procedures Role of the researcher Appendixes  .

Review of Literature .

Review of literature Quantitative Substantial amount of literature at the beginning to introduce a problem Qualitative Use sparingly in the beginningsubstantial at the outset Mixed Methods Use literature consistent with approachqualitative or quantitativemost prevalent in the design .

Purpose Statement .

Purpose statement Quantitative Qualitative The purpose of his study to describe/develo p/discover/und erstand-use neutral words Mixed Methods Must convey both quantitative and qualitative purpose statements. Indicate mixed methods design .

 The purpose of this two phase. sequential study is to obtain statistical and quantitative from a sample and then follow up with a few individuals to probe or explore those results in more depth .Purpose statements of Mixed methods eg….

 The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study is to better understand a research problem by converging both quantitative and qualitative data .Purpose statements of Mixed methods e.g. At the same time the central phenomenon will be explored using qualitative interviews… . In the study quantitative instrument will be used to measure the relationship….

Research Questions .

Research Questions Quantitative Use research questions/ hypotheses Qualitative A central question + Associated questions To discover /Seek to understand/Exp lore process Mixed Methods Mixed methods must have quantitative and qualitative research questions .

5 Spacing No fancy cover/frame To submit to respective instructor by 9/6/2012 Late submission will result in a grade lower .Final Draft Proposal        15 pages excluding cover page Gaya UKM Times New Roman 1.

General Research proposal Outline       Introduction Literature review Methodology Preliminary findings/piloting Discussion Bibliography .

Evaluation of Research Proposal   The clarity of research questions posed How well it explains the relevance of the question to an academic literature .

grammar and spelling .Evaluation of Research Proposal cont…. comprehensiveness. coherence.   The relevance of the research questions to the method chosen to collect and analyze data Clarity.

Proposal presentation     To give 10-15 minute presentation To consult and get approval from respective instructor prior to presentation To be present through out the duration of the presentation slot To ask questions and give comments .

Proposal presentation    All students must present their proposals on the chosen date 4-5th of June 2012 Venue: Bilik Mesyuarat Fakulti Absent presenter assumed “Not interested to present” .

Thank You .

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