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Chapter 1.

Introduction: Matter and Measurements
Outline 1. Matter and properties 2. Classification of matter 3. Elements and periodic Table 4. Measurements and significant figures

Reference 1. “Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach”, S. S. Zumdahl, S. A. Zumdahl, International Ed. 2012, Chapter R.
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1. Matter and properties
• Chemistry is a science that studies matter and its changes. • Matter is anything that has mass and also occupies volume.
For example: Air, Water, Trees, Grass, Building…

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Properties of matter
• To distinguish between samples of matter, we compare their properties. • Property: any characteristic that can be used to describe or identify matter. • Two categories of properties:
– Physical properties – Chemical properties

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– Such properties can be observed without changing the chemical composition of a substance. Examples: Color Mass Odor Melting point Boiling point 4 .Physical Properties • Physical properties: – Describe physical characteristics or behavior.

mass.Physical Properties of Matter • Physical Properties can be intensive or extensive.g.g. density. e. volume. • An intensive property is a property that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. volume density. mass. color 5 . e. temperature • An extensive property is a property is directly proportional to the amount of material in the system. color.

Chemical Properties • Chemical properties: . e. 4 Fe (s) + 3 O2 (g)  2 Fe2O3 (s) 6 .A chemical property is the ability (or inability) of a substance to undergo a change in composition under stated conditions. Rust (corrosion) occurs when a bicycle is left out in the rain due to the chemical combination of oxygen with iron to give the new substance iron oxide.Describe how a substance reacts with other type(s) of matter. .g. Corrosiveness is therefore a chemical properties of iron.

– Physical change – Chemical change 7 .Physical and Chemical Changes • Chemistry is a science that studies matter and its changes.

but its chemical composition is unchanged. 8 . but both are made up of H2O molecules. • No breaking of chemical bonds. Examples: • Melting of water • Freezing of water Liquid water and ice (solid water) are certainly different in many ways.Physical Changes • Physical changes are changes in the form of a substance.

Rust occurs when a bicycle is left out in the rain due to the combination of 9 oxygen with iron to give iron oxide.Chemical Changes • Chemical changes occur when the chemical composition of a substance is changed. . Examples: As wood burns. • Breaking of bonds and rearrangement of atoms • In a chemical change (or chemical reaction). matters are converted to new kinds with different compositions. it turns into a pile of ashes and gases.

Rigid Definite volume but no definite shape. Takes the shape and volume 10 of its container. Takes the shape of its container. . Classification of Matter According to their physical states.2. matter can be classified as (a) solid (b) liquid (c) gas Definite shape and volume. No definite volume or shape.

Classification of Matter Matter can also be classified according to their compositions: 11 .

water.Classification of Matter Matter can also be classified according to their composition: Substances: Pure matters that have definite fixed compositions which do not vary from sample to sample.g. orange juice water 12 sugar solution . a sugar solution. gold. Mixtures: made up of two or more substances. e. e.g.

g. etc). filtration. 13 . A mixture can be separated into its components by appropriate physical means (e. distillation and chromatography.Distinguishing Between Substance and Mixture A substance is a kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process.

Types of Substances An element is a substance made up of the same type of atoms. 14 . and cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. NaCl). water.. oxygen (O2)] A compound is a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined (e. [e.g. gold (Au).g.

In heterogeneous mixtures such as orange juice. 15 . The solid are different from liquid. the components separate into distinct regions. but the sweetness of different sugar solution samples may be different depending on the concentration of sugar in the solutions. A sugar solution is uniformly sweet throughout a given sample.g. e.Types of Mixtures Sugar solution components uniformly mixed Orange juice components not uniformly mixed Homogeneous mixtures are uniform in composition and properties throughout a given sample (but variable from one sample to another).

classification of matter 16 .Summary.

Exercises 1. Which of the following is a physical property? a) Flammability b) Toxicity c) Corrosiveness d) Temperature e) Explosiveness 17 .

Exercises
1. Which of the following is a physical property?
a) Flammability b) Toxicity c) Corrosiveness d) Temperature e) Explosiveness

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Exercises
2. Vanillin contains 63.15% C, 5.30% H, and 31.55% O

whether it is extracted from vanilla beans, synthesized chemically from clove oils, or extracted from wood pulp wastes. Vanillin is most likely to be: a) a solution of C in H and O b) a heterogeous mixture of elements c) a compound of C, H, and O d) a homogenous mixture of elements

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Exercises
2. Vanillin contains 63.15% C, 5.30% H, and 31.55% O

whether it is extracted from vanilla beans, synthesized chemically from clove oils, or extracted from wood pulp wastes. Vanillin is most likely to be: a) a solution of C in H and O b) a heterogeous mixture of elements c) a compound of C, H, and O d) a homogenous mixture of elements

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dissolves in water e. undergoes a rapid reaction with alcohol and hydrochloric acid 21 . a sugar solution forms crystals when the water evaporates away f. turns to a black substance when mixed with sulfuric acid c.Exercises 3. solid phase at room temperature d. white color b. a. Indicate which are physical properties and which are chemical properties. sugar cubes do not conduct an electrical current g. The following are properties for sucrose (table sugar).

) b.) g. turns to a black substance when mixed with sulfuric acid (Chem.) c.Exercises 3. The following are properties for sucrose (table sugar).) e. dissolves in water (Phys. white color (Phys.) d. a sugar solution forms crystals when the water evaporates away (Phys. Indicate which are physical properties and which are chemical properties.) 22 . solid phase at room temperature (Phys. a. undergoes a rapid reaction with alcohol and hydrochloric acid (Chem. sugar cubes do not conduct an electrical current (Phys.) f.

Silver metal turns black when exposed to air. b. d. a.Exercises 4. A slice of bread turns green after sitting on the kitchen counter for 6 days. A white solid is produced when chlorine gas is mixed with sodium metal. Classify the following statements as a physical change or a chemical change. An ice cube disappears if left outside on a windy day when the temperature is -10 oC. c. 23 .

A white solid is produced when chlorine gas is mixed with sodium metal. (Chem. Change) b. Change) c. (Chem. An ice cube disappears if left outside on a windy day when the temperature is -10 oC. (Phys. (Chem.Exercises 4. a. Silver metal turns black when exposed to air. Classify the following statements as a physical change or a chemical change. Change) 24 . Change) d. A slice of bread turns green after sitting on the kitchen counter for 6 days.

25 . Elements and Periodic Table Element: .An element is one of the fundamental substances from which all material things are constructed. Everything you see around you is formed from one or more of 118 known elements (as of November 2011). Only 94 of the 118 presently known elements occur naturally.3.

Carbon allotropes: graphite. and fullerenes Graphite Diamond Fullerene 26 .g. diamond.Allotropes of Elements Allotropes . e.different forms of an element.

Examples: Name Beryllium Carbon Copper Potassium Notes: Symbol Be C Cu (from Latin.g.Chemical Symbols For simplicity. 27 . chemists use Chemical Symbols (one or two-letter abbreviations of the name) to refer to specific elements. Uuu. Uun. cuprum) K (from Latin. kalium) • Only the first letter is capitalized • Temporary 3-letter symbols are assigned to newly or not-yet synthesized elements (e. Uub).

Group Period A Group (or a family): a vertical column of elements A Period: a horizontal row of elements 28 .The Periodic Table • The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements. organized according to their chemical properties.

IIIVA 29 .Other Labels for Groups are also known.g. e.

Periodic Table in Our Textbook 30 .

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32 . Nonmetals: Often gases. malleable. Metalloids: elements with intermediate properties. liquids. or solids that do not conduct electricity appreciably.Classification of the Elements Metals: Lustrous. ductile. electrically conducting solids at room temperature.

Classification of Elements 33 .

Summary of last lecture • Properties: physical. chemical • Changes: physical. chemical symbol • Periodic table: – group (family). period. heterogeneous) – substance: element. – classification of elements . chemical • Classification of matter: – solid. liquid and gas – mixture: homogeneous. compound • Elements: – allotrope.

D) The number of elements must equal the number of compounds. Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between the number of elements and the number of compounds is correct? A) The number of elements and the number of compounds are approximately the same. C) The number of compounds is much larger than the number of elements. B) The number of elements is much larger than the number of compounds.Exercises 1. 35 .

Exercises 1. B) The number of elements is much larger than the number of compounds. 36 . D) The number of elements must equal the number of compounds. C) The number of compounds is much larger than the number of elements. Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between the number of elements and the number of compounds is correct? A) The number of elements and the number of compounds are approximately the same.

Exercises 2. Which of the following CANNOT be the chemical symbol for an element? A) Co B) Cf C) B D) CU 37 .

only the first one is in capital letter.Exercises 2. Which of the following CANNOT be the chemical symbol for an element? A) Co B) Cf C) B D) CU Chemical symbols: one or two characters. 38 .

Exercises 3. The number of known elements at this time is approximately A) 50 B) 100 C) 200 D) infinite 39 .

Exercises 3. The number of known elements at this time is approximately A) 50 B) 100 C) 200 D) infinite Ca. 40 . 118 known elements (up to 2011).

An element in the fourth period of the periodic table is A) C B) Cu C) Cs D) Cl 41 .Exercises 4.

An element in the fourth period of the periodic table is A) C B) Cu C) Cs D) Cl 42 .Exercises 4.

Exercises 4. An element in the fourth period of the periodic table is A) C B) Cu C) Cs D) Cl 43 .

Exercises 4. An element in the fourth period of the periodic table is A) C B) Cu C) Cs D) Cl 44 .

Which element is a transition metal? A) Mg B) Os C) Xe D) Br 45 .Exercises 5.

Exercises 5. Which element is a transition metal? A) Mg B) Os C) Xe D) Br 46 .

Which element is a transition metal? A) Mg B) Os C) Xe D) Br 47 .Exercises 5.

Exercises 5. Which element is a transition metal? A) Mg B) Os C) Xe D) Br 48 .

49 .4. Measurements and Significant Figures • Chemistry is a science that studies matter and its changes. • Law: Summarizes what happens. We do experiments and make observations to explores the MACROSCOPIC world • what we can see — • to understand the PARTICULATE world we cannot see. • Theory: A model to explain why it happens. • Hypothesis: A possible explanation for an observation. • Chemistry is an experimental science.

Chemistry and Measurements • In chemistry experiments. – We also make QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS.g. 50 . changes in color and physical state. – We make QUALITATIVE observations of reactions — e.

Quantitative Measurements • Quantitative measurements consist of two parts:  number  unit Examples:  20 grams  20 mL 51 .

The Fundamental SI Units The SI base units that chemists commonly use: Physical Quantity Mass Name of Unit kilogram Abbreviation kg Length Time Temperature meter second kelvin m s K Electric current Amount of substance ampere mole A mol 52 SI units: International System of units .

Prefixes Used in the SI System • Prefixes are used to indicate the scale of the unit. 53 .

Chemistry and Measurements What units are commonly used to measure volume and temperature in chemistry? 54 .

Units of Volume • The SI unit of volume is the cubic meter (m3). – A liter is a cube 1 decimeter (dm) long on each side. 1 m3 = 1000 L 1 L = 1000 mL 55 . • The most commonly used units for volume in chemistry are the liter (L) and the milliliter (mL). – A milliliter is a cube 1 cm long on each side.

Thermometers are used to measure temperature. Usually tells us how hot or cold an object is. 56 .Units of Temperature Temperature is a measure of the speed of particles in a matter.

the freezing point of water is 273. and the boiling point is 373. the freezing point of water is 0 °C and the boiling point is 100 °C.15 °C. On the Kelvin scale. At this point there is no molecular agitation.15 kelvin (K).15 oC = K – 273. K = oC + 273. is equal to 273.Two Common Units of Temperature On the Celsius scale.15 57 .15 K. The zero point on the Kelvin scale (0 K or absolute zero).

Accuracy – No Precision – No Accuracy – No Precision – Yes Accuracy – Yes Precision – Yes 58 . • • Accuracy: agreement of a particular value with the true value. Uncertainty is expressed in two ways: Accuracy and Precision.Measurements and Uncertainty: Precision and Accuracy It is impossible to make exact measurements and all measurements have uncertainties. Precision: degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity (Reproducibility).

 A measurement always has some degree of uncertainty.  One way to indicate uncertainty in a measurement is to use significant figures.Significant Figures  The numbers reported in a measurement are limited by the measuring tool.  A digit that must be estimated is uncertain. 59 .  Significant figures in a measurement include the known digits plus one estimated digit.

Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures. 60 . exactly.  3456 has 4 sig figs (significant figures). Nonzero integers always count as significant figures.  1 inch = 2. 2.  9 pencils (obtained by counting).54 cm.Rules for Counting Significant Figures 1.

These do not count as significant figures.   9.300 has 4 sig figs 150 has 2 sig figs. Leading zeros are zeros that precede all the nonzero digits.048 has 2 sig figs. c. Captive zeros are zeros between nonzero digits. Trailing zeros are zeros at the right end of the number. These always count as significant figures.07 has 4 sig figs.  0. b. They are significant only if the number contains a decimal point. 61 .Rules for Counting Significant Figures 3. There are three classes of zeros: a.  16.

Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations 1.381 4 sig figs 2 sig figs Corrected 7. 1.4 2 sig figs Limiting term 62 .342 × 5. For Multiplication or Division: the number of significant figures in the result is the same as the number with the least significant figures used in the calculation.5 = 7.

28 3 dec.275 31. places 63 .Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations 2.445  7. places 2 dec.83 31. 23. places Limiting term Corrected 31. For Addition or Subtraction: the result has the same number of decimal places as that with the least decimal places used in the calculation.28  Corrected 2 dec.

0.000 bees 1 3 2 5 3 7 64 . 3. State the number of significant figures in each of the following: A.0008 g 2 1 3 2 4 4 D. 4.Exercise 1. 2.00 m E.050 L C.080. 0.030 m 1 2 3 B.

0.000 bees 1 3 2 5 3 7 65 .030 m 1 2 3 B.050 L C. 4. 0.Exercise 1.080. 3. 2.0008 g 2 1 3 2 4 4 D.00 m E. State the number of significant figures in each of the following: A.

725 2) 40.18. 235.7 66 .Exercise 2.6 + 2.2 = 1) 40.05 + 19.925 .8 B. In each calculation.75 2) 256. round the answer to the correct number of significant figures. 58.73 3) 257 3) 40. A.1 = 1) 256.

8 B.7 67 .05 + 19. round the answer to the correct number of significant figures.18.73 3) 257 3) 40. 58.6 + 2.75 2) 256. A. 235.2 = 1) 40.Exercise 2.925 .1 = 1) 256.725 2) 40. In each calculation.

0028 = 0.Exercise 3.2.2 = 1) 9 B.3 2) 9. 2) 11 3) 0.0105 X 0.58 2.07 = 1) 61.311 ÷ 0. A. round the answer to the correct number of significant figures.060 1) 11.041 68 .198 2) 62 3) 60 C.2 3) 9. In each calculation. 4.19 X 4.54 X 0.

07 = 1) 61.041 69 . round the answer to the correct number of significant figures. 2) 11 3) 0. In each calculation.2 3) 9.58 2.0105 X 0.198 2) 62 3) 60 C.Exercise 3.060 1) 11.0028 = 0.2 = 1) 9 B. 4.19 X 4.2.54 X 0. A.311 ÷ 0.3 2) 9.

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