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ELECTRONIC MEDIA (Broadcasting Media

)
TV AND RADIO

By Pranav Kumar Ojha MBA 3rd Semester MONIRBA University of Allahabad

ELECTRONIC MEDIA
Electronic Media are media that use electronics or electrochemical energy for the end user (audience) to access the content.

HISTORY OF TELEVISION
Sep 15, 1959, TV was introduced in India. One hour telecasts from single studio in Akashvani Bhawan were transmitted two days a week. Aug 1965, daily transmission was started in Delhi. TV station established in Mumbai in 1972. Doordarshan (DD), India's National Channel, was established in 1959 as a part of All India Radio.

Till 1975, only seven cities were covered by Television. Television was separated from Radio in 1976 and Doordarshan came into existence. National programme was introduced in 1982 and from then onwards, there has been steady progress in Doordarshan.

Cont….
Aug 15, 1982, colour TV introduced. First colour programme is the PM’s address to the nation. Commercial TV started in 1976 but took off only in 1983 with the soap opera of lt. Manohar Shyam Joshi’s “Hum Log”. Till 1964 one needed a license to own a TV set. 1976-77 was a watershed in the history of Indian advertising. DD started accepting ads. First product to be advertised on Indian TV on Jan.1, 1976 was Gwalior Suitings. In June 1981 Network Associate of UTV pioneered cable TV in India. CNN was introduced in the wake of the Gulf War in 1991. Soon came STAR TV.

current affairs and business and Metro. Presently. DD started five satellite channels from Aug.15. 11 Regional Languages Satellite Channels (RLSC). sports. Doordarshan operates 19 channels . DTH service started in 2000. an International channel and a Sports Channel. four State Networks (SN). . 1993 viz entertainment. Regular satellite transmissions began in 1982 (the same year color transmission began). music.Cont…….two All India channels.

MERITS OF TV TV has immense impact. Retailers also watch TV. Comprehensive technique. Animation and image building . Familiar. friendly voices and faces. Excellent quality of production.

. •Transient and immobile medium. •Time constraint. •Difficult to gain inquiries. •Production costs. •Time gap to purchasing.DEMERITS OF TV ADS •Time consuming.

•TV advertising is nearly face-to-face personal selling.TV COMMERCIALS •It is the advertising message that is carried in a limited time span of 10 sec. . •The copy of the commercial includes the audio part and the video part. except that it is one way. It also includes music and sound effects. 30 sec or 60 sec.

TV COMMERCIALS contd……… •TV commercial must have entertainment value. special effects and super-impositions. the cast. the set and the props. •After the commercial is complete it is subjected to post-production process consisting of editing. •TV commercials are produced at a great cost. . •This is followed by a shooting phase. dubbing. Before production one has to decide about the script.

TV ADVERTISING SPENDS Channel Mainstream Hindi channels English and other entertainment channels Tamil channels Malayalam channels Kannada channels Others Total Amount (in crores) 1820 600 180 40 40 30 ______ 2170 .

•Broadcast TV is the preferred media for infomercials with a usage of 60%.INFOMERCIALS: •Infomercials are programme length commercials. •They are being produced on TV – they are longer and pass on more information to provoke consumers to action. . •Highly effective for relationship marketing.

and saw the entry of many foreign players like Rupert Murdoch's Star TV Network in 1991. A few years later CNN. •Zee TV was the first private owned Indian channel to broadcast over cable. STAR Plus. •Five new channels belonging to the Hong Kongbased STAR TV gave Indians a fresh breath of life. National Geographic Channel made its foray into India. BBC and Prime Sports were the 5 channels. and others. MTV. .SATELLITE TV: •The cable TV industry exploded in the early 1990s when the broadcast industry was liberalized. MTV. Star Movies. Discovery Channel.

By 2003 international channels such as Nickelodeon. ESPN. VH1.Contd………. Disney and Toon Disney came into foray . Cartoon Network. •Star expanded its bouquet introducing STAR World. Regional channels flourished along with a multitude of Hindi channels and a few English channels. Channel V and STAR Gold. •By 2001 HBO and History Channel were the other international channels to enter India. STAR Sports.

Colours. • Its rise has been attributed to Colors’ use of differentiated and disruptive programming and extensive marketing.a partnership between US media giant Viacom and Indian media conglomerate Network18 Group . Colors . the channel converted itself into a paychannel with effect from April 2009. .Khatron Ke Khiladi. and Jai Shree Krishna were the highest rated shows in its launch weeks.Contd…. •The most recent channels that have come up are UTV Movies. 9X and 9XM.has been continually challenging the leading incumbents in this genre. Zoom. promotional and distrbution activities. Some of its key launch shows Fear Factor . UTV Bindass. Initially the channel was launched as free-to-air but after its successful shows including Balika Vadhu.

E24. • Approximately 400 broadcasting channels were given permission and 33 of these were awarded licences in 2008. . • 2008 was the year of launching specialised channels catering to the needs of up-scale and urban audiences. of Seoul. •Star India has aggressive plans in the home shopping space and plans to start a home shopping channel via a joint venture with CJ Home Shopping Co. As per press reports. Firangi and Topper TV among others. there are in excess of 150 applications to launch new channels awaiting permission from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. These new niche offerings included Showbiz.Contd…. NDTV Lumiere. •The number of television channels in India has boomed in recent years. World Movies.

Sony owned Sony Entertainment Television. •As of 2010. over 500 TV Satellite television channels are broadcast in India.Contd……. News Corporation owned STAR TV. This includes channels from the state-owned Doordarshan. . Sun Network and Zee TV.

•DTH service was first proposed in 1996. Airtel Digital TV and so on. •DISH TV was the first DTH service provider in India. DD Direct Plus. •It does away with the need of the local cable operator. •Finally reached India in 2000. •Nowadays there are many DTH service providers like VideoconD2H. .DIRECT-TO-HOME (DTH) •Defined as the reception of satellite programmes with a personal dish in an individual home.

9 1.6 1.7 1.6 3.7 0.00 .7 4.CHANNEL VIEWERSHIP VS.5 0.9 1.2 0.2 11.5 1.3 4. REVENUES CHANNEL SHARE OF SHARE OF VIEWERS REVENUES HIP (%) (%) 46.00 2.2 1.4 2.6 2.4 5.7 1.8 39.00 3.9 100 57.4 17.1 100 ROI INDEX Mass Entertainment Regional Language News Hindi Film English Entertainment Sports Infotainment/Kids Music Total 1.8 0.

Asia Net. Asianet Plus.P Gemini TV. Jaya TV. ETV Bangla. Eenadu TV. KalaignarTV KTV. ETV Marathi. Maa Telugu. Zee Kannada. Zee Marathi. Star Ananda . Surya TV. .B Aakassh Bangla.REGIONAL TV MARKET TAMIL NADU Sun TV. Zee Talkies. Star Majha. Zee Bangla. Vijay TV. KARNATAK KERALA MARATHI A Udaya TV ETV. Zee Telugu. W. Amrita TV. Kairali . Star Jalsha. Kiran TV. Kannada Udaya Movies. Teja TV. A. Raj TV. Star Pravah.

India now has over 134 million households with television sets. of which over 103 million have access to Cable TV or Satellite TV. .CURRENT STATUS OF TV IN INDIA •As per the TAM Annual Universe Update . including 20 million households that are DTH subscribers.2010.

.CURRENT STATUS OF TV IN INDIA Contd…… •TV owning households have been growing at between 8-10%. while growth in Satellite/Cable homes exceeded 15% and DTH subscribers grew 28% over 2009. • There have been some major changes in the past year or two and the change that are coming in are more rapid.

The business is changing and it is going to change even rapidly in the coming years.CURRENT STATUS OF TV IN INDIA Contd…… •TV remains important. We live comfortably in mostly linear TV. • Advertisement is growing across the world and in India it is more rapid as compared to any other country. nearly 5 hours of TV is consumed a day. More than $130 billion is spent on TV advertisement. in India between 2 to 4 hours of TV is consumed a day. and these figures have been constant for the past 20 years. ‘personalized TV’ and ‘On demand TV’. with the consumer. . whereas in the US. This is because of new technology and the control of getting what one wants. What is changing is ‘time shift TV’.

In addition. All this technology is not the future but is here today. . •Growth achieved by the television content industry is on account of significant increase in the number of television channels in India. it stands at an estimated Rs. Television content segment has maintained a steady and healthy growth rate of 16. 10.4 billion in 2007.5% from 2004-08. •. this growth has necessitated the requirement for differentiation and hence higher emphasis is being placed on the quality of television content being produced. Its share in the television industry too has not changed materially and stands at 4% in 2008. Sony has come out with a DVR which can record programs 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. This also means that the consumer is the boss and people want technology. 9.CURRENT STATUS OF TV IN INDIA Contd…… •For example. which is up from Rs. In 2008.1 billion in 2007.

you can watch programmes of your choice at any given time. You can watch more than one programme simultaneously. • To begin with. •The technology would enable television viewers accessing remote servers and the internet through their television and the digital set top device.INTERACTIVE TV •It is a convergence technology that will convert the one-way passive TV viewing into a two-way interactive experience. . or watch one and record another.

electronic programming guides. in the new order you can also have video on-demand.INTERACTIVE TV •Viewers will not be restricted to watching movies being screened by the channel they happen to be watching but can choose the one they wish to see. video recording. customised local information like news and weather. t-commerce and internet access. • They can select from a menu on the screen and access a list of movies from which they can choose the one they wish to see. • While you are still watching television. .

•What's more television will move out from the box to fit snugly into your mobile phones pretty shortly. interactive TV does not use technology that will require you to change your television set. •Incredible as it may sound. . Experts say.. All that is required is a digital set top box and a compatible remote. it would be quite affordable to the common man. From your mobile you can dial a number and request a 1minute download (mobisode) of a 24-minute episode.INTERACTIVE TV Contd….

1924 – First voice emerged out of radio in Chennai. •1970 – AIR adopted the concept of sponsored programmes •Slowly. •July 21.RADIO HISTORY OF RADIO •1923 – Radio Club. •1967 – AIR started commercial services called ‘Akashvani ka Panchrangi Programme’. Mumbai broadcast the first radio programme. AIR overshadowed Radio Ceylon •Boom period lasted till 1981. •1957 – Vividh Bharti service started. .

. 1927 – IBC was set up in Mumbai.’ •At Present: •Number of Radio Stations in India: 312 •Number of Radio Receivers: 116. company renamed as Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. •After govt.000. •1957 – AIR officially renamed as ‘Akashwani.Indian Broadcasting Corporation •23rd July. •1936 – Company restarted for the third time under the name ‘All India Radio’. •Forerunner of the present AIR. take over.000.

.RADIO ADVERTISING Strengths : •Offer local coverage. •Permeates all economic and social strata. •Limited commercial time available. •Reach uneducated village folk. •Message broadcasted repeatedly. Limited availability of commercial radio. Weaknesses: •Audio medium only.

•Most interactive medium available. •Immensely flexible. at the right place and with the right message at the right cost. •Has great impact in terms of ad recall. •We can do many other things while listening to radio. . •Improves campaign efficiency as a multiplier medium •One of the greatest advantages of radio is to be with the consumer at the right time. adaptable and suitable for modern life.ADVANTAGES: •Most suitable medium for a diverse audience.

•Repetitions are monotonous. •No durability of message. .LIMITATIONS •Possibilities of distortion in communication. •Less no. of audience than that of television. •Short advertising life.

COMPARISON BETWEEN TV AND RADIO TV •Audio visual has the greatest impact. •Greater flexibility for ads. •Many time spots available near the popular news casts all over the day which TV can’t offer. •Can be heard from anywhere whereas TV requires compulsory seating near the set •Current events and happenings can be introduced simultaneously . •Useful for those products which require demonstration. •Reach very wide •Drawback – Doesn’t offer demographic selectivity RADIO: •Transistors are mobile and ubiquitous. •Possible to exercise cost control.

with over 41. •The total number of private FM radio stations India has increased to 69 •Radio Mirchi. •Has potential for commuters. 2010. •Introduction of private participation from 15th August. 1993.2 million listeners. along with its alliances. as per the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) quarter 1 (Q1).FM Broadcasting •Started by AIR since 80s in metros.. •Audio re-kindles visual association of a previously viewed ad •Offer excellent music experience. •FM channel would be best suited in the beginning for brand building with specific target audience in mind. •FM is the ideal medium for niche-marketing. has retained its number one position in the Indian FM radio industry. .

Chennai.FM Channels FM Channels Locations Group Radio Mirchi Mumbai. Lucknow Mumbai. Kolkata. Pune. Indore. Delhi . Delhi. Ahmedabad Mumbai. Delhi Mumbai TOI Radio City GW Capital Red Go India Today Mid-Day Multimedia . Bangalore.Kolkata.

•Radio stations generated revenue of INR 8 bn in 2008.3 % in 2008. expected to reach 4 % in 2012 . expected to reach INR 18 bn by 2012. •Bulovo Watch .Some Facts About Radio •The first Radio wave was transmitted in 1887.First brand to be advertised on radio in the US in 1926. •37% of rural population still gets information from radio and only 27% get from TV. •Share of Radio advertising was 3. •In India AIR covers 95% population and 86% area of the country.

Performance of the Indian radio Industry in 2008 •In 2008.9 billion in 2007.6% in 2007. •The bulk of revenues of the radio advertising industry come from private FM broadcasters and the balance from the State broadcaster All India Radio (AIR) •In terms of share of ad pie. radio industry has been able to increase its share to 3.3% over the previous year. the Indian radio advertising industry recorded a growth of 20. thus almost doubling its share over the period 2004-08. 6.4%.3 billion in 2008. 8. •The radio advertising industry stood at Rs. the Indian radio industry has grown by 36. which is marginally up from 3. . from 2004-08.8% in 2008. which was up from Rs. •Over the last 4 years.

the Government made regulatory changes aimed at promoting the growth of the radio sector and increasing its financial flexibility. . enter into mergers or de-mergers and amalgamation of companies by way of transfer of shares. without any change in ownership of the company and without any prior permission of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 Mergers and acquisitions allowed in private FM radio business•During 2008. •The changes involved allows FM radio broadcasting companies to create subsidiaries.

448 crore). They will invest £15 million in developing and re-launching the brand over the next few months. which operates under a FM licence in London and an AM licence in the rest of the UK. Radio sector’s first out-bound investment took place in 2008 with Bennett Coleman and Company Ltd.  Virgin Radio is a music station.Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 Mergers and acquisitions allowed in private FM radio business. (BCCL) acquiring Virgin Radio Holdings from UK-based SMG Plc for a consideration of $106 million (Rs. . 448 crore. BCCL acquires Virgin Radio UK for Rs.

3 FM. Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (R-ADAG) has launched a 24-hour FM radio station in Singapore that will broadcast Indian film music. This is the first time an Indian FM station is going offshore. The channel will play celebrity interviews. news and other entertainment trivia in a collaborative venture with local station Media Corp.Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 contd……. songs and gossip. Radio. •Indian radio goes international. . The station is called Big Bollywood 96.

The Phase II of FM licensing has been both exciting and challenging for the radio industry. The Phase II expansion saw the Government issuing 245 licenses. . increase in FDI from 20% to 26% i. Phase III FM expansion. and it is believed the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is likely to roll out in excess of 600 licenses (in over 250 additional towns) in Phase III. same as print and allowing multiple frequencies in radio per city.Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 contd…….  The industry is also hopeful of TRAI recommendations being given the go-ahead.e. Some of these include allowing sports and current affairs news.

is not allowed to broadcast news. . There is also a debate that if the FM radio industry is not allowed to broadcast news in the air waves. with an allowance of 100% FDI. Doordarshan. authorized television news channels. United News of India. Presently. with an allowance of 20% FDI. there seems to be an anomaly that Satellite radio. the same should not be allowed on Satellite radio as well. is allowed to broadcast news whereas FM radio. Phase III FM expansion. Press Trust of India and any other authorized news agency. On the matter of allowing news on radio.Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 contd……. TRAI in its recommendations has suggested that radio broadcasters should be allowed to broadcast news provided that they use content only from All India Radio.

Total listening has increased in some cities to as high as 22 hours per week.  Average time spent on radio as per the IRS has increased from 70.4 minutes to 81.Source IRS .. As per IRS 2008/2009 radio listenership has increased.Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 contd….1 minutes for radio in 2007-08. Number of radio-listeners increases.

This helped radio broadcasters emerge as a strong media ally for most political parties in their campaigns. As per press reports. As a run up to the General Elections. approximately Rs.. political advertisements were allowed on radio via Government notification. Political advertisements allowed on radio. .Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 contd…. 50 crores was spent on radio alone by political parties in these elections.

Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 contd………. .  Most radio stations tied up with IPL teams from their respective states for launching various contests that enticed listeners with tickets to South Africa in addition to other goodies. as well as participate in contests. IPL on radioRadio was also the beneficiary from IPL with respect to advertising revenues.  Most radio stations also provided regular updates on the score and this too resulted in more listeners tuning into radio to listen.  Radio stations were also able to earn additional revenues from SMSs from listeners participating in these contests.

it is projected that the radio advertising industry will be able to increase its share from 3. and now accounts for around 4% of total media spend. . 19 billion in 2013 from the present Rs.Outlook for the Indian Radio Industry 2009-2013 •Spending on radio advertising is growing rapidly.2 % in 2013. 8. which is more than double its current size. •In terms of share of ad pie. •The Indian radio advertising industry is projected to grow by 18% over the next five years.8% in 2008 to 5. reaching to Rs.3 billion in 2008.

Radio Re-invented •Satellite Radio •Net Radio •Digital Radio & •Podcasting .

Thank You……… a .