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AC Motors

Presented by Tracy Baptiste

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At the end of Session 1 you will be able to: State the two types of AC motors State the advantages and disadvantages of induction motors Stipulate where induction are used identify the construction features of the stator and the rotors used in the induction motor Correlate the 3-phase current to the flux position and hence the rotor position in a 3phase induction motor

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Introduction
1. Synchronous motor – the magnetic field current is supplied by a separate DC power source; 2. Induction motor – the magnetic field current is supplied by magnetic induction (transformer action) into their field windings.

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The Induction Motor
• • Induction motors are used worldwide in many residential, commercial, industrial, and utility applications. It can be part of a pump or fan, or connected to some other form of mechanical equipment such as a winder, conveyor, or mixer.
• Main Advantages : cheap and low maintenance • Main Disadvantage: speed control is not easy
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Overview of Three-Phase Induction Motor

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Induction Motor Stator Construction

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low maintenance 6 .Induction Motor Rotor construction • Two types: 1. low cost. Squirrel cage (SCIM): Rotor winding is composed of copper bars embedded in the rotor slots and shorted at both end by end rings This is the most common type Simple. robust.

/rotor winding 7 .Squirrel cage Rotor Short circuits all rotor bars.

8 . The winding terminals can be connected to external circuits through slip rings and brushes.2. more expensive. Easy to control speed. Wound rotor (WRIM): Rotor winding is wound by wires.

• There is NO direct physical connection between the rotor and the stator.Arrangement of Rotor & Stator • The rotor fits inside the stator with a slight air gap separating it from the stator. Stator Rotor Air gap 9 .

The Induction principle • Coils placement in motor creates rotating. magnetic field in stator • Rotating magnetic field cuts rotor bar and induces current in rotor • Rotor current creates magnetic field on rotor • Attraction of rotor to stator creates torque and. hence. horsepower 10 .

3-phase stator-winding illustration 11 .

Principle of Operation • Torque producing mechanism C 0 A 0 B 12 .

Principle of Operation • Torque producing mechanism C A B 13 .

Principle of Operation • Torque producing mechanism A 0 C 0 B 14 .

Principle of Operation • Torque producing mechanism A B C 15 .

Principle of Operation • Torque producing mechanism A 0 B 0 C 16 .

Principle of Operation • Torque producing mechanism A B C 17 .

Principle of Operation • Torque producing mechanism B A 0 0 C 18 .

Describe a Universal Motor 2. Build a SPIM 19 .Single-Phase Induction Motors (SPIM) At the end of Session 2 you will be able to: 1. State the types of SPIM 4. Describe the Principle of Operation of SPIM 3.

This principle is used in the universal motor 20 .Types of Single Phase Induction Motors Recall • In a series dc motor. when both the stator and rotor fields are reversed. the motor runs in the same direction 1.

Shaded pole motor 21 .Types of Single Phase Induction Motors 2.

Repulsion Induction motors 22 .Types of Single Phase Induction Motors 3.

Types of Single Phase Induction Motors 3. (a) Split-Phase Induction motors 23 .

SPIM The Centrifugal Switch 24 .

Types of Single Phase Induction Motors 3. (b) Split-Phase Resistor-Start Induction motors 25 .

Types of Single Phase Induction Motors 4. Capacitor Induction motors a) Capacitor Start AC Induction Motor 26 .

Types of Single Phase Induction Motors 4. Capacitor Induction motors (b)Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) Induction Motor OR Capacitor Run AC Induction Motor 27 .

Types of Single Phase Induction Motors 4. Capacitor Induction motors (c) Capacitor Start – Capacitor Run Induction Motor 28 .

Now to activity 2 L1 L2 L N N N 29 .

Session 3: Synchronous Speed Generally. where p→ # pole pairs (or pp) 30 . where p→# poles • or Ns = 60f/p. • Ns=120f/p.

• If the motor turned at the same RPM as the magnetic field. and no magnetic field would exist.Slip • Slip is associated with synchronous speed. • Therefore. there would be no relative motion between the rotor and the field. Rotor speed < synchronous speed Slip(S) = synchronous speed(Ns) – rotor speed(Nr) in rpm % slip = ( Ns – Nr / Ns ) 100 31 . no current would be induced into the rotor.

then becomes a synchronous motor 32 . so AC generators (or alternators) can be used as synchronous AC motors – three phase motors use three sets of stator coils • the rotating magnetic field drags the rotor around with it – single phase motors require some starting mechanism – torque is only produced when the rotor is in sync with the rotating magnetic field • not self-starting – may be configured as an induction motor until its gets up to speed.Session 4: Synchronous motors – just as a DC generator can be used as a DC motor.

33 . • In a synchronous motor. • Field windings are the windings producing the main magnetic field (rotor windings for synchronous machines).• Synchronous machines are AC machines that have a field circuit supplied by an external DC source. • armature windings are the windings where the main voltage is induced (stator windings for synchronous machines). a 3-phase set of stator currents produces a rotating magnetic field causing the rotor magnetic field to align with it. The rotor magnetic field is produced by a DC current applied to the rotor winding.

Synchronous rotor 34 .

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Synchronous Motors (continued) • Construction – Stator identical to that of a three-phase induction motor – now called the “armature” – Energize from a three-phase supply and develop the rotating magnetic field – Rotor has a DC voltage applied (excitation) – Rotor could be a permanent-magnet type 36 .

Supply the DC power from a special DC power source mounted directly on the shaft of the machine.Construction of synchronous machines Two common approaches are used to supply a DC current to the field circuits on the rotating rotor: 1. 2. One end of a DC rotor winding is connected to each of the two slip rings on the machine’s shaft. Slip rings are metal rings completely encircling the shaft of a machine but insulated from it. . Supply the DC power from an external DC source to the rotor by means of slip rings and brushes. Graphite-like carbon brushes connected to DC terminals ride on each slip ring supplying DC voltage to field windings regardless the position or speed of the rotor.

Construction of synchronous machines A rotor of large synchronous machine with a brushless exciter mounted on the same shaft. .

turn tables • Can improve power factor: suited for high electricity use systems 39 .Synchronous Motors (continued) • Constant speed fixed by system frequency • DC for excitation • low starting torque: suited for low load applications – clocks.

Synchronous Motors (continued) • Operation – Magnetic field of the rotor “locks” with the rotating magnetic field – rotor turns at synchronous speed 40 .

Session 5: Direct-On-Line (D.B.T. C. M MOT OR L2 M L3 120V a.c.L)/Across the Line(A.L.O. .) Motor Starter M L1 C. 95 Pilot lamp O/L STOP 96 START M A1 13 14 A2 M.B.

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Motor Starter Components .D.O.L.L/A.T.

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Reduced voltage starting motor control • Star delta motor control circuit and power circuit .

W2 U2.W1 Star Delta 47 .U1.V1 V2.

Reduced voltage starting Auto-Transformer closed transition starter .

Induction motor control reduced voltage starting primary resistance starting • With one resistor .

Reduced voltage starting Part winding starters • Two step starting: .