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II

Web 3.0
explained with a stamp
(English version)

Part I: the basics

Part II: techniques
A presentation from: Freek Bijl
(Dutch) blog: Bijlbrand.nl
Web 3.0 - the semantic
web - is about the
meaning of data.
This is a stamp

In 1980 you could buy this stamp for 1 cent

Now it’s worth 3 euros

This stamp is from the United Kingdom

This stamp is used between 1978 - 1981

The picture on the stamp is a PO Box

This stamp is designed by John Bryan Dunmore
Why do we want
to add meaning to
data ?
When a computer
understands what data
means, it can do
intelligent search,
reasoning and combining.
This makes our live
more easy.
The next technologies
are used to make a
more semantic web…
RDF XML URI
SPARQL XDI XRI
SWRL XFN OWL
API OAUTH
!
Complicated
An explanation with a
stamp collection.
Meaning is about
understanding. To
understand we need a
language. A language
starts with words.
Things mean something
in words. Online, we
describe things with
XML.
This is my stamp collection

The first stamp is called “Red dragon”
and is from China. It was made in the
year: 1984.

The second stamp is called “PO Box”
and is from England. It was made in the
year: 1992.
< .. etc >
=
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<collection name=”My stamp collection">
<stamp>
<title>Red dragon</title>
<country>China</country>
<year>1984</year>
</stamp>
<stamp>
<title>PO Box</title>
<country>England</country>
<year>1992</year>
</stamp>
</collection>
We can’t understand words
alone. We also need
grammar. Online grammar
is RDF (Resource
Description Framework).
This stamp is from England.
predicate

object
subject

This stamp is from England.
With RDF Scheme
we can define
concepts and make
simple relations
between them.
This stamp is
from England,
hence from
Europe.
But, RDF scheme is limited. A
language needs more
expression and logic to make
good reasoning possible.
That’s why OWL (The Web
Ontology Language) was
invented.
Finally, to reason
you need rules.
I got this stamp
from my uncle.
son of brother
I mother or father

The rule for calling
someone my uncle is that
one of my parents has a
brother.
Rules are formulated
in SWRL (Semantic
Web Rule Language).
<ruleml:imp>
<ruleml:_rlab ruleml:href="#example1"/>
<ruleml:_body>
<swrlx:individualPropertyAtom
swrlx:property="hasParent">
<ruleml:var>x1</ruleml:var>
<ruleml:var>x2</ruleml:var>
</swrlx:individualPropertyAtom>
<swrlx:individualPropertyAtom
swrlx:property="hasBrother">
<ruleml:var>x2</ruleml:var>
<ruleml:var>x3</ruleml:var>
</swrlx:individualPropertyAtom>
</ruleml:_body>
<ruleml:_head>
<swrlx:individualPropertyAtom
swrlx:property="hasUncle">
<ruleml:var>x1</ruleml:var>
<ruleml:var>x3</ruleml:var>
</swrlx:individualPropertyAtom>
</ruleml:_head>
</ruleml:imp>
So,
Words in XML
Grammar in RDF (scheme) and OWL
Rules in SWRL
There are a lot of
things, that can be
described using
standard formats.
For example: contact information.
hCard > contacts
hCalendar > events
hReview > reviews
hResume > resumes
XFN > social networks (relation= a friend or
colleague)

These things are described
with microformats.
Suppose, I want to search for
a specific stamp.
“I want all the red stamps,
designed in Europe, but
used in the U.S.A.,
between 1980 and 1990”
We can use
SPARQL (Protocol
and RDF Query
Language).
Because the web is
decentralized and data is
in many places, not only
language is important.
Exchange of data between
different machines is key.
A database with stamps
A database with countries
A database with colors
A database with stamp traders
To make a connection a machine
needs a source. For this, we use
resource identifiers. Best known
resource identifier is the URI (which
consists of a name (urn) and a
location (url)).
Because URI’s have
international limitations and
the need for data-exchange
between machines is rapidly
growing there is a successor:
XRI (Extensible Resource
Identifier)
There is a standard for sharing,
linking and synchronizing data.
This standard is called XDI (XRI
Data Interchange).
With all this I am
capable of using the
power of all different
data resources on the
web.
But…
Data is protected. We need
consent and a key to gain acces.
The key to certain data is
described in an API (an
application programming
interface).
An open standard for
accessing (authentication)
the API is OAuth.
So,
RDF XML URI
SPARQL XDI XRI
SWRL XFN OWL
API OAUTH
… are now words with a
meaning for you !
.end
My (Dutch) blog: http://www.bijlbrand.nl
Most important references:
• http://en.wikipedia.org/
• Presentation JeenBroekstra (Wageningen UR)