Aaker Model

• The Aaker Model, created by David A. Aaker, a marketing professor at the University of California-Berkeley, is a marketing model which views brand equity as a combination of brand awareness, brand loyalty and brand associations, which add up to give the value provided by a product or service. • For Aaker, brand management starts with developing a brand identity, which is a unique set of brand associations representing what the brand stands for and offers to customers an aspiringbrand image.

Aaker Model – Brand Identity
Brand-as-product
(Scope, attributes, quality/value, uses, users, Country of origin)

Brand-as-organization
(Organizational Attributes, local vs. global)

Brand-as-person
(Brand Personality, customer relationships)

Brand-as-symbol
(visual imagery/metaphors, Brand heritage)

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• • • • • •

Aaker primarily sees brand identity as consisting of 8-12 elements which fall under four perspectives: Brand as Product - consists of product scope, product attributes, quality or value of the product, uses, users and country of origin. Brand as Organisation - consists of organizational attributes, local workings versus global activities. Brand as Person - consists of brand personality and customer-brand relationships. Brand as Symbol - consists of audio and visual imagery, metaphorical symbols and brand heritage. The purpose of the Aaker Model is to help in creating a brand strategy consisting of different brand elements or patterns, so as to clarify, enrich and differentiate a brand from its competitors. An organization carefully employs several of these elements to communicate to the consumers what their brand stands for.

Aaker Model – Brand Assets
Brand loyalty
Brand associations Proprietary Assets (patents,
trademarks, channel relationships)

Brand awareness Perceived quality

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tough SALLY BAIN . spirited. charming • Ruggedness – outdoorsy. up-to-date • Competence – reliable. intelligent. wholesome. cheerful • Excitement – daring. imaginative. honest. successful • Sophistication – upper class. Try to use some of these words to describe a brand • Sincerity – down-to-earth.Brand Personality FIVE DIMENSIONS OF BRAND PERSONALITY Aaker’s Model describes the profile of a brand similar to a human being.

Introduction • Brand identity and brand image helps brand managers to formulate strategies to make consumers relate to the product in a much easier way • Brand Personality. .it is based on the premise than consumers prefer something that exhibits their characteristics or their ideal values.

.Introduction • Brand identity and brand image helps brand managers to formulate strategies to make consumers relate to the product in a much easier way • Brand Personality.it is based on the premise than consumers prefer something that exhibits their characteristics or their ideal values.

packaging. and nature of the product convey the same. The adverstisement.• Sunsilk in India Sunsilk has a caring. gentle feminine Personality. . nurturing.

Brand Anatomy of Coke Essence:Youth Benefit: Joyous Environment Attribute: A Frizzy Drink (Vivaciousness) .

Brand Personality Analysis of Santro car Sensory Small Light Fresh Bubbly Emotional Light-Hearted Convenient Youthful Dependable Fun Car Rational Manoeuvrable Quick .

.When it necessary to have a brand personality • Brand personality is important when the product is socially conspicious ( products like automobile. consumers rely on image rather on the features of the product which is a bit difficult to comprehend) or when the target audience is highly self-concious. clothing) or when the availability scarce ( as in the case of luxury goods) or when it is complex product ( in case of hi-tech products.

Tools to Build/ Understand Brand Personality • Brand Personality Scale The five main personality factors as identified by Aaker are sincerity. competence. sophistication. excitement. and ruggedness. .

Brand Personality Analysis of Santro car Sensory Small Light Fresh Bubbly Emotional Light-Hearted Convenient Youthful Dependable Fun Car Rational Manoeuvrable Quick .

When it necessary to have a brand personality • Brand personality is important when the product is socially conspicious ( products like automobile. . clothing) or when the availability scarce ( as in the case of luxury goods) or when it is complex product ( in case of hi-tech products. consumers rely on image rather on the features of the product which is a bit difficult to comprehend) or when the target audience is highly self-concious.

sophistication. and ruggedness.Tools to Build/ Understand Brand Personality • Brand Personality Scale The five main personality factors as identified by Aaker are sincerity. competence. . excitement.

Real. Genuine. Offbeat. Aggresive Characteristics Family –oriented. Humorous. Lively. All American. Happy Tough Rugged.Analysis using brand personality scale Sincerity Down to Earth Honest Wholesome Cheerful Excitement Daring Spririted Imaginative Up-To-Date Competence Reliable Intelligent Successful Sophistication Upper Class Charming Ruggedness Outdoorsy Masculine. Fun Independent. Innovative. Exciting. Artistic. Serious Leader. Blue-collar. Sexy. Good Looking. Adventurous. Strong. Warm. No-nonsense . Ethical. Smooth. Young. Contemporary. Old-fashioned Sentimenteal. Trustworthy. Thoughtful. Active. Efficient. Flashy. Influential Trendy. Caring Original. Secure. Gentle Hard-working. Sophisticated Feminine. Surprising. Corporate. Friendly. Outgoing Unique. Western. Confident. Clasic. Athletic Glamorous. Provocative Cool. Small town. Ageless. Pretentious. Conventional Sincere. Careful Technical.

. Self-expression Model -states that the consumer sees the brand as the kind of person he/she wishes to be Example: This is the case with Royal Enfield’s Bullet. The rider is considered to be very masculine when he rides the bike. Bullet’s personality is one that represents a “macho” character.• Three Models to Build Brand Personality Aakers states the 3 models namely as: 1.

• Three Models to Build Brand Personality 2. Relationship Basis Model . Example: ‘Eureka Forbes’ is seen as a friend for life and would fit this explanation of brand personality .is liking to associate with a personality exhibited by the brand drives the purchase. The consumer wants to establish friendship with the brand and the brand need not represent their characteristics or their aspirational values.

Functional Benefits Representation model -the brand personality is used as a vehicle to state the benefits of the brand. Example: Devil Onida .• Three Models to Build Brand Personality 3.

place and promotion along with packaging needs to be effectively handled to build a personality. price. Relationship between consumers and brand personality Brand / Product Related Activity Keeps repositioning its brand Same character kept unchanged High price and exclusive distribution Frequent Promotions Sponsors relevant shows Offers a lot of warranty Cues Obtained No stable personality Consumers get comfortable with the personality Sophisticated Uncultured and Cheap Helpful and Supportive Reliable and Dependable .• Building Brand Personality via the 4 P’s and Packaging The 4 p’s of mktg.product.

User Imagery 2. Endorser 3. Consistency .• Building Brand Personality via Adverstisement The elements of advertisement which can be used for building brand personality: 1. Execution-related elements 4.

want and like. The personality here is not used to convey the identity.• Building Brand Personality Bottom-up This method takes an entirely different route. It uses four-step processing defining the target audience. and creating the product personality to match that profile. . build a consumer personality profile. rather it intacts what the consumers want from a brand of that category. finding out what they need.

. which contains statements describing the brand users along with the characteristics of the brand. Direct elicitation techniques .• Building Brand Personality Bottom-up 1.the consumers are given a questionnaire.

• Building Brand Personality Bottom-up 2. scenario projection psychodrama. sentence completion. Indirect elicitation techniques . collage and analogies and methapors used to find out what kind of personalities are generally asociated with the brand. photosor. . obituary. brand marriage.techniques such as word association. personification. personalit/uniqueness traits.

behavioural response. expressed over time. with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands. and is a function of psychological(decision-making evaluative)processes.BRAND LOYALTY • “The biased.” – Jacoby and Chesnut(1978) . by some decision-making unit.

• Carefully cultivated to an extend by marketers reflecting the aspirations of the customers. • Repeat advertising and promotional offers can create awareness and build brand recognition among customers.STRATEGIES TO BUILD BRAND LOYALTY • Dependent on emotional attachment towards the brand. .

encouraging customers to be a part of that programme. • Brand names are equally important. hence communication through any media should be consistent and persistent. • Loyalty may also be carefully built by offering specialized programs.• Published information in print and electronic media enhances the brand awareness and increases business equity. .

. • 2. BENEFITS OF PRODUCTS – the benefits derived from products by the consumer should be unique from other products. There should be some emotional benefit of the brand apart from the product benefit.BUILDING LOYALTY THROUGH STRATEGIC DIFFERENTATION • 1. EMOTIONAL BENEFITS – delivering a product benefit by itself may not create brand loyalists.

• 3. . BRAND PESONIFICATION – forms the customer’s perception about the brand’s personality.

Brand Equity Versus Brand Loyalty • Brand loyalty is a consistent repurchase of the brand accompanied by a favorable brand attitude • Brand equity is a mental concept of a brand’s superiority .

Brand Loyalty • Brand loyalty as a behavior • Brand loyalty as an attitude .

Loyalty Needs Both Attitude and Behavior BEHAVIOR STRONG STRONG Loyalty Spurious Loyalty WEAK Latent No Loyalty ATTITUDE WEAK .

Behavioral Brand Loyalty The consistent repurchase of the same brand • Brand loyalty is measured in several ways: – Proportion of purchase – Sequence of purchase – Probability of purchase .

Attitudinal Brand Loyalty Greater liking for a brand • Attitudinal brand loyalty can be measured by asking customers to rank various brands in terms of how much they like a brand or which brand they prefer the most .

Brand Loyalty as Attitude-Based Behavior • Brand relationship quality – Love/Passion – Self-Connection – Commitment – Interdependence – Intimacy – Brand Partner Quality .

Contributors to Brand Loyalty • Perceived brand performance fit • Social and emotional identification with the brand • Habit combined with a long history of using the brand .

In this competitive scenario where brand loyalty has lost its longevity . . it is a positive step by the marketers. The reward points offered to the customer lure him towards purchase.Multi Brand loyalty • Multi Brand loyalty is an approach of mutual benefit of related or unrelated brands in the competitive scenario.

How Customers Shop • A dynamic interplay of factors influences store choice – Location – Merchandise quality – Selection – Price .

Choices Based on Nonlocational Criteria • Self selection – Customers self-select themselves to be the customers of the store that offers the advantage they seek • Other factors – Service – In-store display – The pleasantness of the ambiance .

Unplanned.Planned. and Impulse Buying • Planned purchases: those the customer had planned to buy before entering the store • Unplanned purchases: those the customer did not intend to buy before entering the store – Restocking unplanned purchases – Evaluated new unplanned purchases – Impulse purchases .

In-Store Factors • • • • • • Knowledge of the store Time pressure Purchase companion Special store promotions Atmospherics Customer mood .

the practice of acquiring all related products from one supplier .One-Stopping Shopping • Suppliers that offer a variety of products or services may want their customers to engage in one-stop shopping (OSS).

Customer Motivations for Seeking OSS • Convenience • Cost savings • Integrated products .

Perceived Risks of OSS • The customer’s fate is tied to a single supplier – Customers may believe that they can lower the risk by diversifying the suppliers .

in time and/or cost savings.Implications for Marketers • OSS should offer better value to customers. than what the customer can obtain from buying the bundled products or services individually .

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