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Membrane modules

Stirred cell module


Uses flat sheet membrane element
Flat sheet tangential flow (TF) module
Uses flat sheet membrane element
Spiral wound membrane module
Uses flat sheet membrane element
Tubular membrane module
Uses tubular membrane element
Hollow fibre membrane module
Uses hollow fibre membrane element
Stirred cell
Membrane
Stirrer bar
Permeate/filtrate
Nitrogen/compressed air
Magnetic stirrer
Feed
Pressure gauge
Permeate
collection
chamber
Useful for small scale and research applications
Used for UF and MF
Provide uniform conditions near the membrane surface
Useful for small-scale process development work
Flat sheet tangential flow
Design is similar to plate and frame filter
press
Easily disassembled for cleaning and
replacement of defective membranes
Can be used to filter suspended solids
and viscous fluids
Relatively low packing density
Used for UF, MF and NF
Design calculations based on empirical
correlations
Spiral wound membrane module
The spiral wound membrane
envelope)
Feed flowing around the envelope
Permeate collected inside envelope
Design calculations are empirical
High membrane packing density
Low cost
Unable to handle suspended solids
Difficulty to clean
Used for NF and UF
Tubular membrane module
Several tubular membranes arranged as in a shell and tube type heat
exchanger
Feed stream enters the tube lumen
Permeate passes through tube wall: collected on shell side
Retentate collected at other end of tubes
Low fouling, easy cleaning, easy handling of suspended solids and
viscous fluids and high transmembrane pressures
High capital cost, low packing density, high pumping costs, and limited
achievable concentrations
Used for all types of pressure driven separations
Hollow fibre membrane module
Similar in design to the tubular membrane i.e. shell and tube
configuration.
Advantages: Low pumping power, very high packing density, and
ability to achieve high concentrations in the retentate
Disadvantages: Fragility of the fibres, inability to handle suspended
solids Used for UF, MF and dialysis
Ultrafiltration
Used for:
Concentration of solutes by removal of solvent
Purification of solvent by removal of solute
Fractionation of solutes
Separates solutes with molar mass within the range of 5 kDa to 500
kDa
Pore diameter: 1 to 20 nm
Ultrafiltration membranes are anisotropic,
Advantages:
High throughput of product
Low process cost
Ease of scale-up
Application:
Fractionation of proteins and nucleic acids
Concentration of macromolecules
Desalting, i.e. removal or salts and other low molecular weight
compounds from solution of macromolecules
Removal of cells and cell debris from fermentation broth
Virus removal from therapeutic products
Ultrafiltration models
p
p m
v
l
P d
J

c
32
2
A
=
f
o i
P
P P
P
+
= A
2
Pore flow model
m
v
R
P
J
A
= Resistance model
Osmotic pressure
model
cp m
v
R R
P
J
+
A A
=
t
g cp m
v
R R R
P
J
+ +
A A
=
t
Ultrafiltration models
Transmembrane pressure
P
e
r
m
e
a
t
e

f
l
u
x
Pressure
dependent
Pressure
independent
?
Limiting f lux
Concentration
polarization model
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
p b
p w
v
C C
C C
k J ln
Gel polarization model
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
b
g
b
s
C
C
k
C
C
k J ln ln
lim
Membrane
Bulk feed
o
b
= Thickness of concentration polarization layer
C
b
C
w
C
p
Permeate
Mass transfer coefficient
k (= mass transfer coefficient) = D / ob
33 . 0
33 . 0 33 . 0
Re 62 . 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
l
d
Sc Sh
33 . 0 8 . 0
Re 023 . 0 Sc Sh =
For fully developed laminar
flow: Graetz-Leveque
correlation
For turbulent flow (Re > 2000):
the Dittus-Boelter correlation
Dimensionless correlations are used for determining mass
transfer coefficient
Correlations are based on heat-mass transfer analogy
General form is: Sh = a Re
b
Sc
c
Solute transmission through membranes
i
w
p
i
S
C
C
R = = 1 1
a
b
p
a
S
C
C
R = = 1 1
( ) ( )
2
2 =
a
R
< 1
1 =
a
R
> 1
Intrinsic rejection and sieving
coefficient
Apparent rejection and sieving
coefficient
Classical theory of rejection
Solute transmission through membranes
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
k
J
S
S
S
S
v
i
i
a
a
1
ln
1
ln
Modern theory of solute transmission:
S
S
S J
D
S
S J
D
i
v m
eff
v m
eff
=
|
\

|
.
|
|
+
|
\

|
.
|
|


exp
exp
o
o
1
( )
S
S
S J
D
J
k
S
S J
D
S
S J
D
J
k
a
v m
eff
v
v m
eff
v m
eff
v
=
+
|
\

|
.
|
|

|
\

|
.
|
|

(
(
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
|


exp
exp exp
o
o o
1 1
Permeate flux (log scale)
I
n
t
r
i
n
s
i
c

s
i
e
v
i
n
g

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Asymptotic
intrinsic sieving
coefficient
Solute fractionation
Solute fractionation refers to separation of one solute from
another
For fractionation of a binary mixture of solutes, it is desirable
to achieve maximum transmission of the solute desirable in
the permeate and minimum transmission of the solute
desirable in the retentate
Efficiency of solute fractionation for a binary mixture is
expressed in terms of the selectivity ():
( )
( )
2
1
2
1
1
1
a
a
a
a
R
R
S
S

= =