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The general meaning of a Drive is the system, which is driven by some energy. The source of energy may be any thing like wind, water, oil, steam, solar or electricity etc.
When the source of energy is electricity, the drive is called Electric Drive.
Utilization of electricity for driving the mechanical system employs the use of Electric Motors, which gives an output in terms of Mechanical Energy.
Many industrial applications requiring rotating electric drives are normally capable of speed control and often require an equipment to attain a versatile and smooth speed control and make the motor to operate at a desired specific speed torque characteristic. These drives are characterized by the nature of speed torque characteristic such as constant torque drives and constant power drives. These are sometimes characterized by the type of motor used in the drive i.e. dc and ac drives making use of dc and ac motors respectively.
Advantages of electric drives .
Multi-motor drive. .Type of Drives The various types of electric drives used in industries may be divided into three types: 1. 3. Group drive. Individual motor drive. 2.
such as in paper mills and textile industry. cleanliness and safety.Individual motor drive In individual drive. a single electric motor is used to drive one individual machine. The machines can be built as an integral part of the complete system. which results in a good appearance. For the purposes where constancy of speed and flexibility of control is required. individual drive is essential. . The machines can be placed in any desired position and can be moved very easily.
provided it is operated fairly 10% overload when being driven by group drive. . A single motor of large capacity costs less than the total cost of a number of small motors of the same total capacity The efficiency and power factor of a large group drive motor will be higher. It is also sometimes called the line shaft drive. This drive is economical in consideration of the first cost of the motors and control gear.Group Drive By group drive is meant a drive in which a single electric motor drives a line shaft by means of which an entire group of working machines may be operated. The line shaft is fitted with multistepped pulleys and belts that connect these pulleys and the shafts of the driven machines serve to vary their speed.
2.If. Also it is not possible to install any machine at a desired place. the main motor will work at low capacity and. belts etc. 5.This form of drive has become obsolete now-a-days because of its following draw-backs and objectionable features. as such flexibility of layout of the various machines is lost.In group drive. 4. all operations are not required. and the modern trend is to employ individual and multi-motor drives: 1. speed control of individual machine is very cumbersome using stepped pulleys. operation efficiency will be low.Owing to use of line shafting pulleys and belts group drive does not give good appearance and is also less safe to operate. therefore.The possibility of installation of additional machines in an existing industry is limited.In group drive since machines have to be installed to suit the layout of the line shafting. . at any time. 3.
The use of multi-motor drive is continuously expanding in modern industry as their advantages outweigh the increase in capital cost as compared to the group drives. rolling mills. Such drive is essential in complicated metal-cutting machine tools. and similar types of machinery.Multi-motor Drive It consists of several individual drives each of which serves to operate one of many working members or mechanisms in some production unit. paper making machines. .
FACTORS AFFECTING DRIVE SELECTION .
3. 7. . 8.Various Types of Driven Equipments 1. 9. Crusher. 6. 5. Pump. Fan. Crane. Compressors. Traction. Conveyers. 2. 4. Hoist. Mill.
Amongst motor used in any modern plant and industry. inertia and duty cycle of load will mainly determine the electrical characteristic and rating requirements of the driving motor. the maximum number of motors used is 3-phase Induction motor because of their cheapness. The Torque – speed characteristic. . Their maintenance in service is also easier as compared to other types of electrical motors. robust construction and satisfactory performance.
torque-speed characteristic.The proper selection of motor rating and design will result in a minimum motor cost for a specified motor life expectancy. inertia and duty cycle of load. The selection of under size motor for low motor cost however may result in overloads and a consequent reduction in motor life. .
This information must be found from a consideration of the other elements in the system Load • Load is defined as the torque required to drive the system. It is usual to estimate the percentage overload which might be applied as a result of system malfunction before the motor reaches its stalling point . including the driven machine. • This may be constant or may vary with speed. • The nominal torque required by the system at normal running speed will be a function of the work done by the driven machine. Thus a relationship between torque and speed. should be established.Factors Affecting Motor Selection • Mechanical power output required The most likely starting point for motor selection is the output required from it to drive the system. called a characteristic of the system.
• If the torque varies with time then the maximum range should be found. Motors are rated according to the time they can maintain their full load without its temperature exceeding the maximum permitted by the insulation class. • Continuous rating means it can work continuously and has a built in overload margin. • The Duty of the system involves the number of hours per day it is in use and the proportion of time the system is working at full load. If it varies with speed thenthe relationship between the two is needed. • Intermittent rating for a given time means that working is restricted to that time and a minimum time must be allowed for cooling between loaded periods. I • t follows that for a given motor the 'continuous' rating has the lowest value .
• Acceleration of the system will depend on the difference between the torque required to drive the system at a given speed and the torque provided by the motor at that speed. • Direction of Rotation • Most systems are designed to rotate in a specific direction so it is necessary to determine which direction • Speed • For systems which are required to be driven at varying speed the speed range must be supplied as well • Electrical Supply . The inertia of the system and the frequency of starting should be determined.• AC motors starting a system having high inertia usually demand a high starting current.
864 8.827 load Cost of machine Total loss 6.95 0.230% Temperature rise .0 Lakhs 31.A case study for 750KW.1 3 4 5 6 7 8 Starting current Starting torque 6.037 6.12 0.66 kW Efficiency at 100% 93. 6.6 kW .600% Maximum torque . 6 Pole Squirrel cage Induction motor which is optimally design for the specification as given below: Starting torque – 90% Starting current .33 load Power factor at 100% 0.027 1. two close designs were selected with the following parameters as shown in Table Description S. N 1 2 Frame size 1st Design 2nd Design 1LA7 636-6 1LA7 710-6 54.5 Temperature rise (oC) 69.0 Lakhs 53.894 95.70 0 C Out of various design.6KV.
4. we can save power 21. Let us take 8 hrs per day. If. From the above table. there are 1x105 ( 1 Lakhs) motors operating every day. It may be noted that the working hours were taken 24 hours which is not realistic. Therefore payback period is 0.4 months. The amount saved per year is Rs 768776x8/24 = 256259/-.468.15 Lakh = Rs 30000. The pay back period is 30000 x12/768776 months = 0. Let us take 15% interest and depreciation. the total saving is Rs 192194 x 4 = Rs 768776. The saving in power loss by using 1LA7 710-6 motor is ( 53. 3. It is less than 15 days only. it can be seen that the efficiency and power factor of Frame 1LA7 710-6 is more than the frame 1LA7 636-6. Taking the unit charge as Rs 4 per unit.56 kWh per day per motor or 192194 kWh per year per motor. . 2.Observations 1.6 – 31.94 kW.468x3 = 1. If the motors are running continuously. The extra expenditure per year on the cost is 2x0.94 = 526. then the number of unit saved is 24x 21.94 x 1x105 kW = 2194 MW. 5.66) kW = 21.
08 P1 Pressure (H) in mm of water .Variable Speed Drives Q-H characteristics of pump 600 500 400 H 300 200 Hr1 Hr2 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Discharge(Q) in m3/sec In pumps and fans using constant speed motor with conventional control. Then P1 Q1 H1 4 x 200 = = = 0.6 x 240 Therefore P2 = 1. The Power consumed P Q H/ (m xp) Where Q = Delivery of pump in m3/sec H = pressure head (m) m = motor efficiency p = pump efficiency s = m p Let Q1 = 4. variation in flow is achieved by means of throttling valve or damper as shown in Fig. H2 = 240 Let us assume that there is no change in system efficiency.6. H1 = 200 Q2 = 3.9259 P2 Q2 H2 3.
: Pump curve at different speed with constant resistive curve for lower quantity Q1 = 4. Even if the system efficiency is down by 1%. It can be seen that there is an advantage of having the variable speed motor. . P2 = 0.6. the power required by pump system will be 72x85/84 = 72. the power required by variable speed motor is only 72%. It is also possible to keep the system efficiency same as original one.39 P2 3. We can also see that in case of still lower delivery. the power reduction in percentage will be more because of lower head.85%.6 x 160 Therefore.Q-H Curve with variable speed motor 600 Pressure (H) in mm of water 500 400 H1 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Discharge(Q) in m3/sec H2 Hr Fig.72 P1 It means. H2 = 160 P1 4 x 200 = = 1. H1 = 200 Q2 = 3.
regenerative braking can be achieved. This is fed back to the line with a line-commutated inverter. Induction Motor In case of squirrel cage motor multispeed winding may help the operation at different speed while speed change can be achieved with the help of addition of rotor resistance. With fully controlled bridge. which converts the slip frequency power to DC and then converting in to three phase which would be fed to main supply for controlling the speed. introducing resistance in the rotor circuit varies motors speed. The power otherwise wasted in rotor resistance can be fed back to the system by using a static converter. DC Motor DC motor with variable speed by rheostatic control in field and armature would give speed control. . paper and textile mills. Energy conservation in Slip ring Induction Motor with Slip recovering is one of best method. In conventional SRIM. DC motor with Thyristor converter is widely used for efficient and precise speed control in steel mills. Some losses also occur in the resistance. efficiency of the motor drops as the speed decreases. Cement Plant. The variable voltage and variable frequency is also adopted for variable speed in Induction motor. Since power is absorbed by rotor resistance.Energy conservation by Adjustable speed control 1. 2.
The fan is coupled to induction motor through a hydraulic coupling so that the fan speed could be varied by scoop tube control. Fixed speed induction motors drive unit 3 ID fans. Variable Frequency Drive has got the following advantages in addition to power savings: (1) Increase in life of equipment due to soft start(2)Unlimited number of starts (3) Assimilation of plant automation system for higher productivity. two 210 MW units at Vijaywada Thermal power station of Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board were selected for carrying out site measurements and subsequent energy consumption comparisons. A synchronous motor fed from Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) was used as a variable Frequency drive.3. The fan is coupled to the motor through a flexible coupling. Synchronous motor The speed change is achieved by application of Variable frequency variable voltage. . The study conclusively proves that introduction of Variable Frequency Drive system for flow control application has a definite advantage in terms of substantial energy savings as shown in Table. Unit 3 & 4 are 210 units and having tower type boilers supplied by the same source. Fans – a case study To have similarity of measurements. Unit 4 ID fans are driven by Variable Frequency Drive.
Payback period can be of the order of 4-5 years only.6KV 50 Hz Hydraulic coupling 1.Unit 3 Type of motor Motor frame Rating Kw Sq.33 Hz VVVF 1845 Kw 474 Kw 2527 MwHr Power consumption for the same load 2319 Kw factor (207 MW) Power saving due to VFD at 207 Mw Energy saving for Generation time of 5333 Hr per year Total Energy saving in Rs per year Rs 81. Motor 1LA7 902 1600 Unit 4 Synchronous Motor Brushless 1DQ3735 1368 Voltage Frequency Method of speed variation 6. cage Ind.62 (taking 1000/.per MWhr) Rs Taking the cost of Control Rs 3 to 4 Crores.2 Kv Up to 47. .
I2 = current after pf improvement. lagging reactive power is required. 2 = pf angle after pf improvement. there should be reduction in reactive power. 1 = pf angle before pf improment. I1 = current before pf improvement. inductive load. For. leading reactive power is required and for capacitive load. P = Power consumed = V I1Cos 1= V I2Cos 2 Ic 2 1 I2 I1 V .Energy conservation by Improving the power factor in case of Induction motor For improving the power factor.
1. Higher currents produce larger voltage drop in cables and other apparatus. 2. This is. the efficiency of the system is reduced. Thus the capital cost of the equipment is increased. the cost of energy loss (that is running cost) in the system increased.The important disadvantages of low power factor are: Higher currents require larger size cable. switchgears. Also. 3. transformer and alternators etc. Higher currents give rise to higher copper losses in the system and therefore. . uneconomical from the supplier's point of view. This results in poor voltage regulation.
Optimization of Power factor correction when Power is same If x is the annual cost per KVA of maximum demand then annual saving in the KVA demand charges = x ( S1 – S2) = x P(Sec 1 – Sec 2) If y is the annual cost per KVAr of the power factor correction equipment then annual cost of the power factor correction equipment.CPF = x P(Sec 1 – Sec 2) . Cs = CD . CPF = y Qc = y P ( Tan1 – Tan 2) The total annual saving .y P ( Tan1 – Tan 2) Condition for optimization is Sin 2 = y/x .
Let us assumed that z is the annual cost per KW of the installation. then the annual saving due to increased power out would be = z S ( Cos 2 – Cos 1) Let y is the annual cost per KVAr of the pf correction equipment then the annual cost of the power factor correction equipment is given by CPF = y Qc = y S (Sin 1 – Sin 2) The net saving would be Cs = z S ( Cos 2 – Cos 1) – y S ( Sin 1 – Sin 2) For maximum annual saving Tan 2 = y/Z .Optimization of Power factor correction when KVA demand is same For the same kVA. the power can be conserved or productivity can be increased.
4. it is generally more economical to use the synchronous condensers. However when requirements exceed 10. The inertia of the synchronous condenser improves the system stability and reduces the effect of sudden changes in load.000 KVAR. Advantages 1. 2. By the use of synchronous condenser a finer control is possible than by the use of static capacitors. it does not supply any active mechanical power. The excitation of the machine is varied to provide the necessary amount of the leading KVAR. A momentary drop in voltage causes the synchronous condenser to supply greater KVAR to the system whereas in the case of static capacitor.Power Factor Improvement Using Synchronous Condensers When the KVAR requirement is small. . A synchronous condenser is essentially an over excited synchronous motor. 3. the KVAR supplied is reduced. Generally. A synchronous condenser can be overloaded for short periods but a static capacitor cannot be overloaded. it can be met through static capacitors.
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