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Chapter 3

Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace

Chapter Outline

Values Values Across Cultures Implications of Cultural Differences for OB Attitudes The Attitude of Job Satisfaction

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace


Questions for Consideration

What is the relationship between values and individual behaviour? How do values differ across cultures? How does job satisfaction affect ones behaviour in the workplace?

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Values

Values
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or endstate of existence. They contain a judgmental element in that they carry the individuals idea of what is right, good, or desirable.

Value System -- a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individuals values in terms of their intensity.
Values generally influence attitudes and behaviour.

Importance of Values

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Assessing Cultural Values

Power Distance Individualism Versus Collectivism Quantity of Life Versus Quality of Life Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term versus Short-term Orientation

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Exhibit 3-1 Examples of National Cultural Values

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Canadas Multicultural Society

1996 immigrant population


42 percent of Torontos population 34.8 percent of Vancouvers 18 percent of Montreals

1991 Census findings on language


15.2 percent spoke neither English nor French. Of these:

28 percent spoke Chinese (either Mandarin or Cantonese) 15 percent spoke Italian 11 percent spoke Portuguese 6 percent spoke Spanish 5 percent spoke Punjabi

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Canadian Social Values

The Elders
Those over 50 Core Values: Belief in order, authority, discipline, and the Golden Rule

The Boomers
Born mid-1940s to mid-1960s Autonomous rebels, anxious communitarians, connected enthusiasts, disengaged Darwinists

Generation X
Born mid-1960s to early 1980s Thrill-seeking materialists, aimless dependents, social hedonists, new Aquarians, autonomous post-materialists

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Francophone and Anglophone Values

Francophone Values

Anglophone Values Individualist or I-centred More taskcentred Take more risks Value autonomy

More collectivist or grouporiented Greater need for achievement Concerned with interpersonal aspects of workplace Value affiliation

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Canadian Aboriginal Values

More collectivist in orientation More likely to reflect and advance the goals of the community Greater sense of family in the workplace Greater affiliation and loyalty Power distance lower than nonAboriginal culture of Canada and the U.S. Greater emphasis on consensual decision-making

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Canadian and American Values


Canadian Values

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Protectionist business environment Personality: more shy and deferential, less violent, more courteous More ruleoriented Peace, order, equality Uncomfortable celebrating success, play it down

American Values Greater faith in the family, the state, religion, and the market More comfortable with big business Intense competition in business Individuality and freedom More comfortable with the

Canada, the US and Mexico


Canada and the Mexico US Higher power Lower power distance distance Managers more More likely to autocratic and tolerate paternalistic abrasiveness and Employees defer insensitivity by more to managers managers Greater Lower risk takers uncertainty More individualistic avoidance Less agreeable to Managers are teamwork greater risk takers Greater reliance on networks and relationships

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

East and Southeast Asian Values


East and Southeast Asia Networked Guanxi relations: relations: based based on on self-interest reciprocation Relationships Relationships viewed with meant to be longimmediate gains term and enduring Enforcement Enforcement relies relies on on personal power institutional law and authority Governed by Governed by guilt (internal shame (external pressures on pressures on performance) performance)

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

North America

Attitudes
Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes less stable than values

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Types of Attitudes

Job Satisfaction
. . . refers to an individuals general attitude toward his or her job.

Job Involvement
. . . measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth.

Organizational Commitment
. . . a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Cognitive Dissonance
Any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes, or between his or her behaviour and attitudes. Inconsistency is uncomfortable Individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance and, hence, the discomfort.

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Canadian Job Satisfaction (1997)

86 percent report that they are satisfied with their jobs


47 percent very satisfied with their jobs 39 percent more somewhat satisfied

71 percent find jobs are challenging and interesting


44 percent strongly agree 27 percent somewhat agree

75 percent say they are treated fairly at work But


40 percent would not recommend their place of work 40 percent report red tape and bureaucracy

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Measuring Job Satisfaction

Single global rating


asks individuals to respond to one question, such as All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?

Summation score made up of a number of job facets.


identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employees feelings about each and then adds them up to get an overall satisfaction score.

Typical factors: the nature of the work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relations with co-workers.

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Job Satisfaction

What Determines Job Satisfaction?


Mentally Challenging Work Equitable Rewards Supportive Working Conditions Supportive Colleagues

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance

Satisfaction Affects
Individual Productivity Organizational Productivity Absenteeism Turnover

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Exhibit 3-2 Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

Active

Exit Destructive Neglect

Voice Constructive Loyalty

Passive
Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Exhibit 3-3 Sample Attitude Survey


Please answer each of the following statements using the following rating scale:
5 4 3 2 1 = = = = = Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree

Statement

Rating

1. This company is a pretty good place to work. 2. I can get ahead in this company if I make the effort. 3. This companys wage rates are competitive with those other companies. 4. Employee promotion decisions are handled fairly. 5. I understand the various fringe benefits the company offers. 6. My job makes the best use of my abilities. 7. My workload is challenging but not burdensome. 8. I have trust and confidence in my boss. 9. I feel free to tell my boss what I think. 10. I know what my boss expects of me.

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON

Summary and Implications


Values strongly influence a persons attitudes. An employees performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if his or her values fit well with the organization. Managers should be interested in their employees attitudes because attitudes give warning signs of potential problems and because they influence behaviour. Managers should also be aware that employees will try to reduce cognitive dissonance.

Chapter 3, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed. 2001 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Scarborough, ON