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Given any set of numerical observations, order them according to magnitude. The Pth percentile in the ordered set is that value below which lie P% (P percent) of the observations in the set. The position of the Pth percentile is given by (n + 1)P/100, where n is the number of observations in the set.

A large department store collects data on sales made by each of its salespeople. The number of sales made on a given day by each of 20 salespeople is shown on the next slide. Also, the data has been sorted in magnitude.

**Sales and Sorted Sales
**

Sales Sorted Sales

9 6 12 10 13 15 16 14 14 16 17 16 24 21 22 18 19 18 20 17 6 9 10 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 24

Thus. . To find the 50th percentile.5th position. and the 11th observation is also 16.Percentiles Find the 50th. and the 90th percentiles of this data set. determine the data point in position (n + 1)P/100 = (20 + 1)(50/100) = 10. the percentile is located at the 10. 80th. The 10th observation is 16.5. The 50th percentile will lie halfway between the 10th and 11th values and is thus 16.

8th position. the percentile is located at the 16.8.Percentiles To find the 80th percentile. The 80th percentile is a point lying 0. determine the data point in position (n + 1)P/100 = (20 + 1)(80/100) = 16.8 of the way from 19 to 20 and is thus 19. and the 17th observation is also 20.8. . Thus. The 16th observation is 19.

9th position.9 of the way from 21 to 22 and is thus 21.9.Percentiles To find the 90th percentile. .9. The 18th observation is 21. the percentile is located at the 18. determine the data point in position (n + 1)P/100 = (20 + 1)(90/100) = 18. The 90th percentile is a point lying 0. Thus. and the 19th observation is also 22.

The third quartile is the 75th percentile. It is the point below which lie 1/4 of the data. The second quartile is the 50th percentile. This is also called the median. The first quartile is the 25th percentile. .Quartiles – Special Percentiles Quartiles are the percentage points that break down the ordered data set into quarters. It is the point below which lie 3/4 of the data. It is the point below which lie 1/2 of the data.

Q2. The second quartile. (25th percentile) is often called the lower quartile. Q3. . (75th percentile) is often called the upper quartile. (50th percentile) is often called median or the middle quartile. The third quartile.Quartiles and Interquartile Range The first quartile. Q1. The interquartile range is the difference between the first and the third quartiles.

75 18+ (.75 .75)(1) = 18.25 13 + (.Finding Quartiles (n+1)P/100 Sales 9 6 12 10 13 15 16 14 14 16 17 16 24 21 22 18 19 18 20 17 Sorted Sales 6 9 10 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 24 Quartiles Position First Quartile (20+1)25/100=5.5 16 + (.25 Median (20+1)50/100=10.5)(0) = 16 Third Quartile (20+1)75/100=15.25)(1) = 13.

Summary Measures: Population Parameters Sample Statistics Measures of Central Tendency Median Mode Mean Measures of Variability Range Interquartile range Variance Standard Deviation Other summary measures: Skewness Kurtosis .

. The sum of the deviations from the mean is 0. All values are used. It is unique.Characteristics of the Mean The arithmetic mean is the most widely used measure of location. It is calculated by summing the values and dividing by the number of values. The major characteristics of the mean are: It requires the interval scale.

Population Mean For ungrouped data. – X is a particular value. – N is the total number of observations. the population mean is the sum of all the population values divided by the total number of population values: where µ is the population mean. – indicates the operation of adding X N .

000 Find the mean mileage for the cars.A Parameter is a measurable characteristic of a population.. X N 56.000.. A business man owns four cars. 73. 23.000 .000 48. 42.000. 73. The following is the current mileage on each of the four cars: 56.500 4 .000.

Sample Mean • For ungrouped data. the sample mean is the sum of all the sample values divided by the number of sample values: X X n Where n is the total number of values in the sample. .

0 .0.0. 16.4 n 5 5 .. A sample of five executives received the following bonus last year : 14. 17. 15. 15. 15.0 77 15.0.• A statistic is a measurable characteristic of a sample.0..0 X X 14.

. • The mean is affected by unusually large or small data values. • The arithmetic mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is zero. • All the values are included in computing the mean. • A set of data has a unique mean.Properties of the Arithmetic Mean • Every set of interval-level and ratio-level data has a mean.

Illustrating the fifth property: ( X X ) (3 5) (8 5) (4 5) 0 . The mean is 5.• Consider the set of values: 3. and 4. 8.

. .....wn.wn. w2.... X2.wn ) .. Xn. X2.. is computed from the following formula: The weighted mean of a set of numbers X1. with corresponding weights w1. wn X n ) Xw (w1 w2 . .. with corresponding weights w1.... .• The weighted mean of a set of numbers X1... is computed from the following formula: (w1 X 1 w2 X 2 . . Xn. w2.

and fifteen for Rs1.• A dealer sold the following items at the prices mentioned.90) 15(1. fifteen for Rs 0.10.15) X drinks.89 50 .50 Rs0. w 5 15 15 15 44.50.75. fifteen for Rs0. Compute the weighted mean of the price of the 5(0. He sold five items for Rs 0.50) 15(0.75) 15(0.90.

the median will be the arithmetic average of the two middle numbers. • There are as many values above the median as below it in the data array. • For an even set of values. .The Median • The Median is the midpoint of the values after they have been ordered from the smallest to the largest.

21. are: 76. 20.5 . • The heights of four basketball players. 76. 80. 19. 22. in inches. 73.The ages for a sample of five college students are: 21. Thus the median is 21. 25. 22 • Arranging the data in ascending order gives: 19. Thus the median is 75. 20. 75. 75 • Arranging the data in ascending order gives: 73. 25. 80.

. It is not affected by extremely large or small values and is therefore a valuable measure of central tendency when such values occur. and ordinal-level data. It can be computed for an open-ended frequency distribution if the median does not lie in an openended class. interval-level.Properties of the Median There is a unique median for each data set. It can be computed for ratio-level.

87. 84.The Mode • The mode is the value of the observation that appears most frequently. 75. Because the score of 81 occurs the most often. The exam scores for ten students are: 81. 81. 75. 93. . 81. 87. 68. it is the mode.

The Mean of Grouped Data – The mean of a sample of data organized in a frequency distribution is computed by the following formula: Xf X n .

Compute the mean number of movies showing. .• sample of ten movie theaters in a large metropolitan area tallied the total number of movies showing last week.

6 n 10 .frequency class f midpoint X 1 up to 3 1 2 3 up to 5 5 up to 7 7 up to 9 9 up to 11 Total 2 3 1 3 10 4 6 8 10 Movies showing (f)(X) 2 8 18 8 30 66 X X 66 6.

The Median of Grouped Data • The median of a sample of data organized in a frequency distribution is computed by: n CF 2 Median L (i ) f where L is the lower limit of the median class. CF is the cumulative frequency preceding the median class. . and i is the median class interval. f is the frequency of the median class.

. then determine which class will contain the 25th value. 50/2 = 25. For example. if n=50. • Divide the total number of data values by 2.Finding the Median Class To determine the median class for grouped data: • Construct a cumulative frequency distribution. • Determine which class will contain this value.

Movies showing 1 up to 3 3 up to 5 5 up to 7 7 up to 9 9 up to 11 Frequency 1 2 3 1 3 Cumulative Frequency 1 3 6 7 10 .

n=10. i=2. CF=3 n 10 CF 3 Median L 2 (i ) 5 2 (2) 6.• From the table. L=5.33 f 3 . f=3.

. as in Example 10. the distribution is called bimodal. When two values occur a large number of times.The Mode of Grouped Data • The mode for grouped data is approximated by the midpoint of the class with the largest class frequency.

Symmetric Distribution • zero skewness mean mode = median = .

• • Mode<Median<Mean .Right Skewed Distribution • positively skewed: Mean and Median are to • the right of the Mode.

Left Skewed Distribution • Negatively Skewed: Mean and Median are to the left of the Mode. • Mean<Median<Mode .

Skewed to left .

Symmetric .

Skewed to right .

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