Attached growth biological process

(Fixed-film process 、 Biofilm process) farid khan

What is a biofilm?
A biofilm is a structured community of bacterial and other microbial cells enclosed in a polymeric matrix and adhered on an inert or living surface. Biofilms consists of three components: a. microorganisms b. extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, glycolax) c. surface

PD Dr. Ursula Obst, National Research Center Karlsruhe, Germany

Microbes are not lonely threavers in the environment but love to live in community.

PD Dr. Ursula Obst, National Research Center Karlsruhe, Germany

Adhesive growth of mixed microbial population on surfaces (microbes + surface) Planktonic vs. fixed Biofilm formation is induced due to bacterial Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS)
胞外聚合物 − slime layer 黏液層 (glycocalyx

醣外被 )

PD Dr. Ursula Obst, National Research Center Karlsruhe, Germany

PD Dr. Ursula Obst, National Research Center Karlsruhe, Germany

Glycocalyx or ‘slime’ formation
Biofilm bacteria excrete extracellular polymeric substances, or sticky polymers, which hold the biofilm together and cement it to a surface. In addition, these polymer strands trap scarce nutrients and protect bacteria from biocides. Attachment is mediated by extracellular polymers that extend outward from the bacterial cell wall (much like the structure of a spider’s web). This polymeric material, or glycocalyx, consists of charged and neutral polysaccharides groups that not only facilitate attachment but also act as an ion-exchange system for trapping and concentrating trace nutrients from the overlying water. The glycocalyx also acts as a protective coating for the attached cells which mitigates the effects of biocides and other toxic substances.

PD Dr. Ursula Obst, National Research Center Karlsruhe, Germany

heat exchanger overgrown by biofilms after treatment with degradable anticorrosives (courtesy HC Flemming)

huge biofilm from a warm water pool, Yellowstone NP

Summarizing: Cell surface structures such as fimbriae, other proteins, LPS, EPS, and flagella all clearly play an important role in the attachment process. The attachment of microorganisms to surfaces is a very complex process, with many variables affecting the outcome. In general, attachment will occur most readily on surfaces that are rougher, more hydrophobic.

PD Dr. Ursula Obst, National Research Center Karlsruhe, Germany

Biofilm Processes
advantages of biofilm processes:
- higher process productivity (loading rates) - higher biomass holdup - higher mean cell residence time - no need for biomass recirculation - creates suitable environment for each type of bacteria - sustains toxic loads

Biofilm Processes
• types :
法 - Biological Contact Oxidation 接觸曝氣法、 生 物接觸氧化法 (Contact biofilter 接觸濾床法 ) - Trickling filters 滴濾池 - Rotating Biological Contactors 生物圓盤



一些接觸 曝氣法之 填料



建鑫環境工程 有限公司

Trickling Filters
Rotating distribution arm sprays primary effluent over circular bed of rock or other coarse media Air circulates in pores between rocks “Biofilm” develops on rocks and microorganisms degrade waste materials as they flow past Organisms slough off in clumps when film gets too thick

Trickling Filters

Filter Material

BOD5 trickling filter NH4+

oxidation of BOD

nitrification NO3-

Trickling filters are operated aerobically and need additional denitrification steps.
PD Dr. Ursula Obst, National Research Center Karlsruhe, Germany

Aerobic secondary wastewater treatment processes (Trickling Filter)

Rocks:10–15 cm in diameter, the bed is 2 m deep

Trickling Filters
Not a true filtering or sieving process Material only provides surface on which bacteria to grow Can use plastic media
– lighter - can get deeper beds (up to 12 m) – reduced space requirement – larger surface area for growth – greater void ratios (better air flow) – less prone to plugging by accumulating slime

Rotating Biological Contactors
Called RBCs Consists of series of closely spaced discs mounted on a horizontal shaft and rotated while ~40% of each disc is submerged in wastewater Discs: Steer or light-weight plastic Slime is 1-3 mm in thickness on disc

Rotating Biological Contactors

Rotating Biological Contactors

Film mixes with wastewater

Shearing of excess microorganisms

Attached microorganisms pick up organics

Rotating Biological Contactors
Primary Settling

Sludge Treatme nt

Secondary Settling

Sludge Treatment

Fixed-film bioreactor
Cost-effective -low capital and O&M costs Small operation land requiried High biomass density & low sludge production Minimizes washout of slow-growing organisms Capable of handling both hydraulic and organic shock loads

Modifications of Basic Biological Methods
Activated sludge with fixed-film packing – Submerged Aerobic Filter (SAF) Synthetic packing materials developed for use in AS processes, may be suspended in the liquid or fixed in the aeration tank Enhance the AS process by providing a greater biomass concentration and reducing the basin size requirements Improve nitrification rates and accomplish denitrification in aeration tanks by having anoxic zones within the biofilm depth

Modifications of Basic Biological Methods
Because of the complexity of the process and issues related to understanding the biofilm area and activity, the process designs are empirical and based on prior pilot-plant or limited full-scale results. There are now >10 different variations of processes with suspended packing, including the Captor®, Linpor® and Kaldnes®.

Kaldnes® Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR)
Developed by a Norwegian company AS process added with small cylindrical shaped polyethylene carrier (10 mm in diameter and 7 mm in height; 0.96 g/ml) in aerated or non-aerated basins to support biofilm growth N removal through both nitrification (with O2) and denitrification (without O2)

• Effluent rate : 30 L/day • Sludge return rate : 15 L/dat

• HRT : 12.5 hr • DO : 2~3 mg/ L

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