Created & Presented by: Tejas.B.

Prajapati (MMS-Systems)

HISTORY OF THE INTERNET
• • Coined from 2 words - ‘Interconnections’ and ‘Networks’ Born in 1969 out of efforts to connect together a US Defence Department network called the ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) and various other radio and satellite networks. Purpose: share information Over time the internet has grown explosively Today the internet as become a

• • •

information superhighway

consisting of billions of people connected to each other

Still Growing

As of January 11, 2007, 1.093 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Stats.

BASICS OF THE INTERNET
DEF: The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible, network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.

INTERNET VS. WEB
• The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiberoptic cables, wireless connections, etc. • The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. . The Web is a service (a system for accessing documents) that is supported by the Internet (a gigantic network).

INTERNET STRUCTURE

• The Internet is often represented by a cloud symbol, into and out of which network communications can pass

INTERNET PROTOCOLS
Application protocol ex: HTTP,FTP

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

At the lowest level is IP (Internet Protocol)

ICANN
• The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers on the Internet, including domain names, Internet protocol addresses, and protocol port. • WHY ? So that there is one and only one holder of each name

Language
• The most prevalent language – English • Nowadays the internet supports many language: Deutsch, Hindi, Italiano, Marathi , to name a few

How the Web works
• Web documents are linked
Hypertext provide an easy way to manage large collections of data, which can include text files, pictures, sounds, movies, and more.

• HTTP and hypertext links are the foundations of the World Wide Web • A collection of related Web pages is called a Website.
Web sites are housed on Web servers, Internet host computers that often store thousands of individual pages.

How to access the Internet
• A home computer may be linked to the Internet using a phone-line modem, DSL or cable modem that talks to an Internet service provider (ISP). • A computer in a business or university will usually have a network interface card (NIC) that directly connects it to a local area network (LAN) inside the business. The business can then connect its LAN to an ISP using a high-speed phone line like a T1 line.

• ISPs then connect to larger ISPs • Backbone: fiber-optic lines, undersea cables or satellite links.

Clients and Servers
Machines on the Internet can be categorized as two types: • Servers
Those machines that provide services (like Web servers or FTP servers) to other machines are servers.

• Clients
The machines that are used to connect to those services are clients

IP Addresses
• Each machine on the Internet is assigned a unique address called an IP address.

These addresses are 32-bit numbers, normally expressed as four "octets" in a "dotted decimal number” Ex: 216.27.61.137 • Octets can have values between 0 and 255 •

A server has a static IP address that does not change very often • A home machine has the IP assigned by ISP and is constant for a session. It may change during next time.

WEB BROWSERS

A Web browser (or browser) is a software application designed to find hypertext documents on the Web and then open the documents on the user’s computer. The most popular graphical Web browsers are Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.

URL
• • • • • • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Ex: http://www.yahoo.com/index.html http:- Protocol to follow www:- service yahoo.com:- server (domain) name index.html :- A file (resource) on the server

WEB SERVER

Behind the scene - Web Server
• • You typed http://www.howstuffworks.com/web-server.htm (URL) into your webbrowser The browser broke the URL into three parts: 1. The protocol ("http") 2. The server name ("www.howstuffworks.com") 3. The file name ("web-server.htm") The browser communicated with a name server to translate the server name into an IP Address The browser then formed a connection to the server at that IP address on port 80 Following the HTTP protocol, the browser sent a GET request to the server, asking for the file The server then sent the HTML text for the Web page to the browser The browser read the HTML tags and formatted the page onto your screen

• • • • •

DNS
Domain Names Because most people have trouble remembering the strings of numbers that make up IP addresses, and because IP addresses sometimes need to change, all servers on the Internet also have human-readable names, called domain names. For example: www.howstuffworks.com is easy to remember than 209.116.69.66

The name www.wikipedia.org. actually has four parts: • The host name ("www") • The domain name (“wikipedia") • The top-level domain name ("org") • The root domain (.)

Name Servers A set of servers called domain name servers (DNS) maps the human-readable names to the IP addresses. These servers are simple databases that map names to IP addresses, and they are distributed all over the Internet.

PORTS
• Any server machine makes its services available to the Internet using numbered ports, one for each service that is available on the server • For example: If a server machine is running a Web server and an FTP server, Web server: port 80 FTP server: port 21 Note: There is nothing that forces a Web server to be on port 80

SEARCH ENGINES
• A search engine lets you search for information by typing one or more words. • The engine then displays a list of webpages that contain related information. • This is called “keyword search”

CONTENT SPECIFIC SEARCH

USING A SEARCH ENGINE
• Use boolean operators in your search
AND : looks for pages that include both terms OR : looks for pages that include either or both NOT : looks for pages that does not include the term ex: printer NOT color

• Suppose you want to search for Inkjet Printers

SITE SPECIFIC SEARCH
• Websites have built in search tool • Enables you to look for information on the website you are currently visiting • Ex: Suppose I want to search ‘RFID’

An advance search

FTP
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) utility program is commonly used for copying files to and from other computers. • You can also perform FTP through a browser

• ftp://yourLoginName@IPaddress • If the remote machine has been reached successfully, FTP responds by asking for a loginname and password. • When you enter your own loginname and password for the remote machine, it returns the prompt ftp>

and permits you access to your own home directory on the remote machine using commands

Some FTP commands
• ? to request help or information about the FTP commands • bye to exit the FTP environment (same as quit) • cd to change directory on the remote machine • close to terminate a connection with another computer • delete to delete (remove) a file in the current remote directory • get to copy one file from the remote machine to the local machine • put to copy one file from the local machine to the remote machine

An FTP example
• % ftp nordsieck.cs.colorado.edu • Connected to nordsieck.cs.colorado.edu. 220 nordsieck FTP server (Version 5.53 Tue Aug 25 10:46:12 MDT 1992) ready. • • • • Name (nordsieck.cs.colorado.edu:yourlogin): yourlogin 331 Password required for yourlogin. Password: 230 User yourlogin logged in.

• ftp> put abc.txt • 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for abc.txt. 226 Transfer complete. • ftp> bye • 221 Goodbye.

APPLICATION OF INTERNET
• E-MAIL • THE WORLD WIDE WEB: (Access to information) • REMOTE ACCESS • COLLABORATION • FILE SHARING • STREAMING MEDIA • VOICE TELEPHONY (VOIP) • LEISURE • MARKETING

Survey Results

E - MAIL
• The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters • Every day billions of e-mail messages sent • E-mail has become an extremely popular communication tool

How e-mail gets from your desktop to a friend
• An e-mail message been nothing more than a simple text message • The ability to add attachments now makes many e-mail messages quite long • E-mail Clients like Outlook Express / Eudora • E-mail client that appears in a Web page

Email - client does four things
• Lists all of the messages in your mailbox by displaying the message headers • Lets you select a message header and read the body • Lets you create new messages and send them • Let you add attachments to messages and save attachments to your PC

Simple Email Server
• Assuming you have an E-mail client on your machine, you are ready to send and receive e-mail. All that you need is an Email server for the client to connect to.

Working of a simple Email server
• It would have a list of e-mail accounts, with one account for each person • It would have a text file for each account in the list ( inside a directory named after u) • You compose and send a message using email – client • Client would connect to the e-mail server

• •

• •

The server would format those pieces of information and append them to the bottom of the MBRAIN.TXT file The entry in the file might look like this: From: jsmith To: mbrain Marshall,Can we have lunch on Monday? John Saves other pieces of information like: date, time As other people sent mail to mbrain, the server would simply append those messages to the bottom of the file in the order that they arrived When I want to look at my e-mail, my e-mail client would connect to the server machine. Show me all of the message headers in a list format. Click on a message header and it will show the body of the message This is a very simple system

• • •

Real Email System

How email works- video

Voice Telephony (VOIP)
• • • VoIP stands for Voice over IP Started on Instant Messaging systems VoIP can be free or cost much less than a normal telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with alwayson ADSL or DSL Internet connections. Eg: Sify has started a business by which one can make ISD calls at a cheaper rate. Simple inexpensive VoIP modems are now available that eliminate the need for a PC. Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. Eg Skype has the best voice quality as compared to any other VOIP clients.

• •

Future Of Internet
• • • • • Mobile Internet E-commerce E-Business Blogging Web 2.0

BLOG
• • • • • • • • A blog is a lot like an online journal or diary. The author can talk about anything and everything. Blogs are full of interesting links that the author has found Snippets of information that are interesting to the author. A blog is normally a single page of entries A blog is organized in reverse-chronological order A blog is normally public The entries in a blog usually come from a single author In Short: A blog can be anything the author wants it to be.

Create Your Own Blog

Web 2.0

Web 2.0 video

Creating your first web-page

Some important concepts
• Web page - A Web page is a simple text file that contains not only text, but also a set of HTML tags that describe how the text should be formatted when a browser displays it on the screen. An HTML tag is a code element that tells the Web browser what to do with your text. Each tag will appear as letters or words between a < (less than sign) and a > (greater than sign). eg : <HTML> HTML - HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. A "markup language" is a computer language that describes how a page should be formatted. Viewing Page Source Notepad Editor to write the code

• •

Your first code on the web
<html> <head> <title>My First Page</title> </head> <body> Hello there. This is my first page! </body> </html>

This is how it looks

At Issue: Cyberslackers

What is Cyberslacking ?
• On-job behavior where employees using their PC and Internet access a great deal, but not for work related purpose. • Why are companies concerned?
– Can lead to law suits: ex: If a person is using company’s computer to distribute pornography, the company can be implicated as supporting him – Careless use can invite viruses and hacking – Lost productivity Ex: If 2 employees devote 1 hour a day on this it leads to 10 hours per week of lost productivity

Taking Action
• Employer can set policies
Ex: Restricting websites, chatting, downloading and installing any software, using only company’s email system etc Tools used by managers to prevent – Web filters(block access to certain websites) – Surveillance (real time activity monitoring) software – Proxy Sever ( traps network traffic) – Packet sniffers (examines all packets) etc – Key stroke Capturing Software

At issue: EMAIL and MACRO viruses

WEBSITES

Reference Books Go Online
Advantages of online version Up-to-date information Depth and Variety Can be referred later after download

Encyclopedias

Dictionaries

Thesauri

Read your favorite websites without an Internet connection

Store documents online

Meta Search – Better Search

Do more with YouTube videos

How to download videos

Editing videos online

Google Alerts – Get the news as it happens

Edit your photos online

Best Place to upload your photos

Web-based instant messaging

Using PDF files without Adobe Acrobat

Online Word, Excel by Google

Online Operating System

Conclusion
• • Because of the growth of Computer and Internet technology, we now live in an INFORMATION SOCIETY  where information is considered to be an extremely valuable commodity.

Those who can control this and know how to access and use it are the key players in this information based economy.

“ BE TECH & INTERNET SAVVY “

Personal Details

TEJAS.B.PRAJAPATI B.E. (Computer), MMS (Systems) Email: prajapatitejas@yahoo.co.in

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