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RAILWAY SECURITY

SUPERVISOR:
Mr.Chandrashankar

PRESENTED BY:
Harshit Jain (0909122015) Himanshu Singh (0909122018)
Shivam Chahal (0909122051) Utkarsh Gaurav (0909122059)

Introduction
159th Year of dedicated service
has grown from a mere 32 Km to a vast network of

more than 62,000 kms. has acted as a great unifying factor for the nation with diverse geographical/ regional features. Stood up in times of national emergencies, natural disasters etc. faced many challenges with the inherent resilience of this vast organization.

Causes of defects
Material defects originating during the manufacturing

process such as clusters of nonmetallic inclusions, hydrogen flakes etc. which may be present in spite of successful non-destructive tests carried out on the rails during quality assurance examination. Residual stresses induced during manufacture (cooling, rolling, gas pressing and straightening). Defects due to incorrect handling e.g. plastic deformation, scoring, denting, etc.

Defects associated with faulty welding i.e. gas pores, lack of fusion, inclusions, cracks etc. Dynamic stresses caused by vertical and lateral loads particularly by vehicles with wheel flats or when the vehicle runs over poorly maintained rail joints etc. Excessive thermal stresses due to variation in rail temperature beyond specified limits.

Train accidents during last ten years

75% 16% 2% 7%

Level Crossing Accidents

Fire in Trains

Collisions

Derailments

Microcontroller

Simple construction and control Lower cost Low total area occupied on the circuit board Flexibility-changes can be made by simply changing the software(code used to program microcontroller) A few well known microcontroller of various families are given below. Intels family 8051 (commercially available as 89C51), 8052, 8031 8085 , Pentium etc. Avr family - ATtiny12 , ATtiny15 , AT90S1200(A) , AT90S2313 , AT90S2323 , AT90S2333, AT90S2343 , AT90S4414 , AT90S4433 , AT90S4434 , AT90S8515, AT90S8535 , ATmega 16 , ATmega83 , ATmega103 , ATmega161 , ATmega163 ,ATmega603 , etc

Pin description of ATMEGA 16

Block diagram
SENSOR 1 MICROCONTROLLER SENSOR 2

DC MOTOR

DC MOTOR DRIVER (L293D)

PCB LAYOUT

Why not Ultra-sonic sensor???


Parts that are rough, irregular in shape, very small or thin, or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect.
Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of inspection procedures. Some ultrasonic sensors (such as the Lego mindstorms ultrasonic sensor unit) are designed in such a way that the sensor unit does not detect "thin" objects very well unless turned 90 degrees to stand "upright".

I.R Sensors
IR sensor Pair Object / Line Transmitter (Tx) Receiver (Rx)

Transmitter = LED (Light Emitting Diode) Receiver = Photodiode

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