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Dave Willis: TESOL France: Paris November 2006
….Communicative competence is not a matter of knowing rules for the composition of sentences... It is much more a matter of knowing a stock of partially pre-assembled patterns, formulaic frameworks, and a kit of rules, so to speak, and being able to apply the rules to make whatever adjustments are necessary according to contextual demands. Communicative competence in this view is essentially a matter of adaptation, and rules are not generative but regulative and subservient. (Widdowson 1989: 135)
...(Communicative competence) ( is not a matter of knowing) (rules for) (the composition of) sentences... (It is much more a matter of knowing) (a stock of) partially pre-assembled patterns, formulaic frameworks, and (a kit of) rules, (so to speak), and (being able to) (apply the rules) to (make (whatever adjustments) are necessary) (according to) contextual demands. (Communicative competence) (in this view) (is essentially a matter of) adaptation, and (rules) are not (generative) but (regulative) and subservient. (Widdowson 1989: 135)
from … to… Sentences and Sentence Stems: How do you do? Would you like? That’s wonderful! We will then go on to… What I mean is… Patterns : a kit/stock/selection/group/collection of … 4 . BE not … but …. whatever … BE necessary. Frames: not a matter of … (more/rather) a matter of. as a matter of fact.WHAT ARE THEY? Polywords: so to speak. according to. once upon a time.
WHAT IS A PATTERN? It + BE + adjective + to … 5 .
but not so easy to achieve. Although it is possible for certain individuals to live to unexpectedly great ages..1. This would the twofold effect of getting the job done cheaply and making it safe for the local people to cross 6 the river. 2. 8. It’s polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. if it isn't you. most crocodiles and alligators live for about 30 years. 7. It’s nice to meet you. It’s easy to say ‘Have confidence in yourself’. living up to the image that you gave at your interview.. 5. It'd be very difficult to go through your working life . . It’s important to create a good impression at the interview. 6. 3. 4. He said it's very unusual to find a well at the top of a hill.
safe.Group 1: GOOD/BAD: better. Group 2: EASY/DIFFICULT: easy. unusual. difficult. polite. 7 . Group 4: WISE/FOOLISH: important. possible Group 3: USUAL/UNUSUAL: common.
essential 8 . silly. dangerous. usual. risky. (fashionable) EASY/DIFFICULT: impossible. (fashionable) WISE/FOOLISH: necessary. risky. simple.Think of the meanings of these words: nice. Can you put these words into the groups: GOOD/BAD: nice. fashionable. silly. dangerous. interesting. necessary. interesting. simple USUAL/UNUSUAL: rare. rude. impossible. rude. essential. rare. usual.
Look at these nouns. Can you divide them into four groups according to meaning: a kick a talk a cry some advice a smile a shout a look a punch some information a slap a groan a glance 9 .
1. a talk a slap some information a punch some advice 3. a cry a shout a groan 4. a smile a glance a look What verb is often found with all of these words? 10 . a kick 2.
slap. smile etc. hug etc. 11 . kiss.GIVE + a/some + noun An action: kick. shout etc. Help or information A non verbal sound: cry. A facial expression: look.
Encouraging learners to extend their knowledge and enabling them to be independent. Organising phrases and patterns to make them learnable. 12 . b) Recognising individual phrases and patterns.LEARNING PROCESSES 1 Recognition. 2 System building. 3 Extension and exploration. a)Recognising the general phenomenon.
When a word is learned draw attention to the associated pattern(s). 4 When practising pronunciation focus on phrases and patterns.g. 3 and 4 also contribute to learning of specific items.) 13 .RECOGNISING THE GENERAL PHENOMENON 1 Draw attention to phrases as well as individual words. (E. associate with. 3 Enter phrases and patterns in vocabulary books. not just individual words.) 2 Explain and illustrate by comparison with L1. argue with/about. (Note: 2.
BE. (prepositions. modals. space. THING. TAKE. discourse organisers. quantity.) b)Time. d)Parts of words.RECOGNISING INDIVIDUAL PHRASES AND PATTERNS. BAD etc. HAVE. MAKE. c)Concepts relating to the themes of the text. vague language. 1 When working with texts start from: a) Frequent words. GOOD. 14 .
Still freezing. was locked in the store in a Stratford-upon Avon butcher's shop for 14 hours with the temperature around freezing point. 15 .The boy who came out from the cold. Peter immediately telephoned his parents. aged 15. A schoolboy who spent the night trapped in a butcher's cold store after being locked in accidentally. who had reported him missing to the police. ran on the spot for ten hours to stay alive. Peter Emerson. Staff arriving for work at the Wood Street shop found him yesterday morning with his teeth chattering and his face purple with cold.
It was bitterly cold and I realised that I might die. Stratford. a thin pullover and a white butcher's smock. trousers. "At first I thought it was someone playing a joke but when I realised it wasn't and began shouting all the staff had gone home. I was behind a big food shelf when the door locked behind me. who lives in Banbury Road.Peter. 16 . "I was wearing only a shirt. said: "I help out at the shop after school and I had gone into the cold store just before closing time. I tried to kick the door open and to pick the lock but it was no good. so I ran on the spot for about ten of the 14 hours".
17 .1 Frequent word: with the temperature around freezing point with his teeth chattering purple with cold 2 Time: after being locked in for ten hours aged 15 for 14 hours yesterday morning Still freezing immediately Etc.
3 Cold: cold store temperature around freezing point teeth chattering purple with cold still freezing bitterly cold 4 –ing: after being locked in freezing point staff arriving for work with his teeth chattering Still freezing Etc. 18 .
.time/place/quantity/vague language/ text markers .quantifiers: a ___ of ____ . 2 Organise patterns structurally.System building.evaluations 4 Look carefully at the use of ‘pivot words’ in patterns.speaker/writer comments . E. .positionals: the ____ of 3 Organise phrases and patterns functionally: .verbs with prepositions. 19 . 1 Build on patterns.g: .delexical verbs.
20 . 3 I’ve searched for it everywhere.What does for mean? 1 I used to work for The British Council. 2 You should stick up for your friends.
fight for. She’s aiming for a job in television. 5. Which groups do you think these phrases belong to: 1. work for. I’m going to vote for Peter Jackson. 2 Supporting or helping a person or group: stick up for. 2. send (away) for.A: 1 Doing something as part of a group: play for. 6.We are collecting for the Society for the Blind. 7. Look out for Michelle when you’re at school. Can you translate these sentences into your own 21 language? . He edits programmes for the BBC. listen for. 3. B: Trying to find something or get something: apply for. 4. look for. try for.The church should speak for the poor. I’ve hunted everywhere for it.
Encourage learners to chunk text for themselves. examples they have come across in previous texts.EXTENSION AND EXPLORATION Encourage learners to list patterns and phrases in their vocab books. 22 . Work on dictionary skills. Look in detail at texts that are familiar to learners.
4 Work together and try to come up with one ________ reason why a normal leopard should turn into a man-eating leopard. 5 A ________ deal of mystery surrounds this disappearance. 3 BB: That actually looks like you. a lot of news is __________ news: disasters. doesn't it? RS: Yes it does actually. crashes and crises. wars.1 In the real world. Yeah. 2 If there is a well at the top of the hill there is a(n) ________ chance that there is water at the bottom too. it's not _________. 23 .
.6 It's perhaps not a very good er basis for friendship between parents and er son-in-law. 10 I was no ________ at games. 8 . yeah. but it was no ________. being cautious and taking more time is not always such a ________ thing. EL: That’s a ________ point. but er I think I would try and make the best of a_______ job there. 7 BB: Offer to provide any more information if they so wish.. 24 . 9 I tried to pick the lock and kick the door open.
25 .Rote learning and memorisation are central to language learing.
Recall exercises oblige learners to ‘chunk’ language for themselves. 26 .
..b ....o ....the ..If there is a well at the top of a hill..i.a g ........is a ...too. If ..a w.....chance .t..is a .t.........of a hill there is a .........a h....a ..a w.-.the ..... t.the .. 27 ... there is a good chance that there is a well at the bottom too..there is a well at the ........t...the ...chance .....-.a.is a well .t.is a ......too...i...i...the ..too...t ..of a hill ...........c....is a well .chance ... If ..is a well ...t .. I...t..is a well ..a...... If ..
Staff arriving for work at the Wood Street shop found him yesterday morning with his teeth chattering and his face purple with cold Staff / arrive / work / Wood Street shop / find him / [TIME] / teeth chatter / face / purple / cold 29 .
30 . wars. 2 If there is a well at the top of the hill there is a(n) ________ chance that there is water at the bottom too. 4 Work together and try to come up with one ________ reason why a normal leopard should turn into a man-eating leopard. Yeah. crashes and crises. doesn't it? RS: Yes it does actually.1 In the real world. a lot of news is __________ news: disasters. it's not _________. 5 A ________ deal of mystery surrounds this disappearance. 3 BB: That actually looks like you.
6 It's perhaps not a very good er basis for friendship between parents and er son-in-law. 7 BB: Offer to provide any more information if they so wish. 10 I was no ________ at games. 9 I tried to pick the lock and kick the door open. 8 . but er I think I would try and make the best of a_______ job there. but it was no ________. being cautious and taking more time is not always such a ________ thing.. 31 . EL: That’s a ________ point.. yeah.
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