Rorschach Inkblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT),Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI
By Rebecca Cortez
Introduction to Projective Tests
Projective Tests- Stemming from psychoanalytic theory, these tests are
designed to assess unconscious material by asking subjects to interpret ambiguous stimuli. The stimulus has no inherent significance, so any meaning people read into it is presumably a projection of their internal feelings and conflicts. When shown photographs afterwards, they were more likely to perceive the photos as scary or malicious. He presumed they had projected their inner feelings onto the photographs. Went on to develop Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
Murray (1933)- Children at his daughter’s party played a scary game “Murder.”
Used to: Researchers frequently use tests in the course of studying personality
traits. Diagnose psychological disorders in clinical settings For assessment purposes in court ordered evaluations Some mental health providers use to decide how to best counsel people about normal problems of daily living
. Free to use any part of the inkblot and allowed to give several responses for each card.Rorschach Inkblot Test
Created by Hermann Rorschach in 1921 A projective psychological test where individuals are asked to describe what they see in a series of 10 inkblots. unconscious drives and conflicts from responses Most widely used projective test – 80% of clinical psychologists engaged in assessment services
80% of psych grad programs surveyed teach it. Thought to identify people’s innermost feelings.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
• Researchers not only access content of response. incongruous.
• • • • • • • •
Ex 1: The degree of mental organizing activity involved in producing the response Ex 2: Illogical. Any information
given during testing provides valuable insight into the unconscious. Ex 7: Whether subject asks questions and what questions asked Ex 8: Whether a movement based response is given (see things in movement)
. This is why everything the subject says or does is written down. Ex 3: Whether the subject uses the whole inkblot or part of it in their response Ex 4: Time taken to produce response (pausing before card can indicate shock) Ex 5:How the subject holds the card and rotates them Ex 6:Analyzing the first card can see how they adapt to new/stressful tasks. or incoherent aspects of responses.
.htm. The results of the structural summary are interpreted using existing empirical research data on personality characteristics that have been demonstrated to be associated with different kinds of responses. 1960) .Take the test for
. .Rorschach Inkblot Test
Exner Scoring System (John E.
Rorschach would give a higher form score to more original
yet good form responses (to what extent a response is faithful to how the actual inkblot looks)
http://theinkblot. the examiner performs a series of mathematical calculations producing a structural summary of the test data.com/theory.Using the scores
for certain categories. Exner.
based on responses that involve eating.have a well-demonstrated relationship to anxious and hostile behaviors
The Rorschach Oral Dependency scale (ROD).Advantages of the Rorschach
Higher inter-rater reliability through the Exner scoring system (1960s).a standard
method used for interpreting the test
Substantial evidence scores are related to and can identify thought/ psychotic disorders.
mouths. how detailed and
creative response is
Elizur Anxiety and Hostility scales (based on the emotional content of patients’
responses). Schizotypal personality disorder. or other oral imagery. The disorganized thoughts and peculiarities of language of schizophrenics can be seen in in interpretation
Several scores correlate well with general intelligence: # of responses .
Responses given by those with Schizophrenia and Bi-Polar disorder (manic phase). appears to be a valid measure of normal variations in dependency
. have poor form quality (they do not fit the shape of the inkblots).
. Ex: Those who report seeing animals or humans in movement receive higher scores on Klopfer’s scale and have somewhat better outcomes in psychotherapy.
Klopfer’s Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale (RPRS) has a
well-demonstrated relationship to treatment outcomes .
Can be used as an adjunct to psychotherapy by asking the
client what the image makes him or her think of and then analyzing the response.Advantages of the Rorschach Continued
Piotrowski found that many patients with “organic” brain
disorders take a longer time to react to the blots and often give repetitious responses.
Subject to bias (countertransference).
Declining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test
Loren and Jean Chapman (1960s) Found responses thought to be indicative of
homosexuality were just as likely to be given by heterosexual males. Students told the male might be a homosexual were more likely to read through inkblot responses and interpret them as such when they were arbitrary developed. will the clinician project his or her own unconscious impulses about the test-taker on the analysis?
.Precautions/Limitations with Rorschach
Results are poorly verifiable.Ex: If the individual comes from lower
socioeconomic background or different race.
Illusory correlation.the phenomenon of seeing the relationship one expects in
a set of data even when no such relationship exists. will the clinician tend to see inkblot response as more negative if they happen to be prejudiced? In other words.
But. who may cut corners as a result . discrepancies seemed to focus on indices measuring narcissism. and discomfort in relationships.
Procedures for coding responses while fairly well specified are extremely time-
consuming to inexperienced examiners. a false positive rate unexplained by current research
It is also thought that the test's reliability can depend substantially on details
of the testing procedure : where the tester and subject are seated introductory words verbal and nonverbal responses to subjects' questions or comments how responses are recorded. In particular. but Wood et al(2003) cites many court cases where these have not been followed populations.Precautions/Limitations with Rorschach Continued
Overpathologize normal individuals. disordered thinking. Exner has published detailed instructions.
Exner's system was thought to possess normative scores for various
. beginning in the mid-1990s others began to try to replicate or update these norms and failed.Rorschach identifies half of all test-takers
as possessing distorted thinking.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (Murray & Morgan. both adults and children. some of ambiguous gender. One card is blank
The TAT (picture interpretation technique)a projective test that uses a standard series of 31 provocative yet ambiguous pictures from which subjects are asked to tell a story.? What is the relationship between the characters ? What will be the outcome of the story?
Most human figures. Questions such as:
• • • • •
What is happening at the moment? What has led up to the event shown? What are the characters are thinking and feeling. female. both genders. Male. Facial expressions are intentionally vague so subject can project their own inner states.
any card may be used with any subject). or that they believe will encourage the subject's expression of emotional conflicts relevant to their specific history and situation (although cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject by age & gender. either using cards that they feel are generally useful. • Can be used as an adjunct to psychotherapy or as an icebreaker in individual and group therapy
.Thematic Apperception Test
• Most practitioners choose a set of approximately 10-20 cards.
aspirations. According to Murray.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Meticulous notes are taken in exactly the same way the subject has told the story. needs and feelings of the subject. the protagonist or the main character is a personality with whom the test-taker identifies himself or herself. The main character reflects the dreams. As with the Rorschach. everything the subject says or does is written down no matter how trivial . Example: those who say a daydreaming boy is thinking about an upcoming test or piano recital are thought to be projecting their own goals and achievement value onto the picture
Research into object relations using the TAT investigates: extent people are emotionally involved in relationships with others.Assesses 3 defense mechanisms: Denial. Two most common methods are: Defense Mechanisms Manual (DMM). and Identification. Social Cognition and Object Relations (SCOR). . Projection.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Several formal scoring systems have been developed for analyzing TAT stories. ability to understand the complexities of human relationships ability to distinguish between their viewpoint on a situation and the perspectives of others involved ability to control aggressive impulses self-esteem issues issues of personal identity
.4 dimensions of object relations.
Advantages of Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Murray stated that without exception. where discussions can be
made about the theme of certain stories the client gives that might not have been within the client’s current awareness.
Especially useful in psychotherapy. every person who
participated in the study injected aspects of their personalities into their stories.
Subject cannot figure out how their response will be
interpreted so it is difficult to fake a response
Especially useful for children who can utilize pictures to tell a
story about their emotions/internal conflicts as they can have difficultly expressing themselves directly with words.
reflecting their own set of values and beliefs. Ex 2: Murray (girls recently watched horror movie.Precautions/Limitations of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The created stories could be based on current circumstances rather than
personality attributes. pictures tell about their current state more than their overall personality).those from different cultures will tell different stories
Declining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test is
based has caused TAT to be criticized as false or outdated. The difference then would be more circumstantial than due to deep seated personality issues. Results unable to span consistently across cultures. Ex 1: a person who had a relaxing day at the beach might tell a very different story than a person who was recently in a car accident.
No single system presently used for scoring the TAT has achieved widespread
Culturally inconsistent. The drawback of any scoring system in evaluating responses to the TAT story cards is that information that is not relevant to that particular system is lost. (as with Rorschach).
In analyzing responses of subjects given photographs versus the TAT.
.Precautions/Limitations of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Very difficult to prove valid or reliable scores
Not useful for diagnosis of mental disorders Characters and environments are outdated.
Mental Health professional administering the test may unknowingly project
his/her own thoughts and feelings about the subject’s story onto the analysis. TAT cards
evoked more negative stories than photographs.
Poor predictor of behavior: trouble predicting troublesome or aggressive
behavior from stories. which can create a cultural or
psychosocial distance between the subject and the stimuli. leading researchers to conclude that the difference was due to the differences in the characteristics of the images used as stimuli. Identifying with them is less likely.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A personality self-report inventory with 567 true-false items with several
scaled scores. Revised 2001. Ex: to identify and develop a depressive scale. 1989-MMPII-2.
. 1989. Empirical criterion-keying approach.
High validity.600 adults.C.
Clinicians look for scores that are significantly lower or higher than the
normal population. ““The only thing that interests me in the news is the comics” depressives are more likely to agree. The MMPI-2 was validated using a normative sample of 2. Copyrighted by University of Minnesota.Content scales added (derived from theoretical concerns)
Most widely used clinical assessment tools . There are ∼10 000 published papers using the MMPI-2 and hundreds of papers every year are added to this number. we would identify test items that depressive individuals answer differently from non-depressive individuals. McKinley( 1930s). Originally designed to measure dimensions of abnormality. now most psychologists look for the overall patterns of scores rather than one specific scale when making assessments.
Hathaway & J.
particularly in criminal cases.com/free_mmpi2_online.
Based on empirical research and not on a clinician's assumptions or Used: Diagnosis of psychological disorders
Part of inpatient psychiatric assessments Outpatient evaluations Expert witnesses in forensic settings Part of an evaluation of a defendant's mental health.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
One survey found nearly universal agreement among directors of
graduate programs that MMPPI-2 should be part of a clinicians training intuitions about what answers indicate particular personality traits.Special version designed for adolescents
Take test online-
MMPI-A.hypnoticmp3. Evaluate candidates for employment in some fields Educational counseling.
excessive/uncontrollable emotions.persistent sadness. suspiciousness. pessimism. social alienation Level of excitability
Psychopathic Deviate Masculinity/Feminin ity Paranoia Psychasthenia
50 56 40 48
People orientation . delusions. tension. lack of hope in future…
Self centeredness. violent emotional outbreaks. excessive/uncontrollable fears. sensitivity Worry. hallucinations. doubts. struggle. disturbances in sensory & motor function
Conflict.tendency to withdraw from social contacts & responsibilities
What is Measured
No of Test Items
Concern about bodily symptoms
Depressive Symptoms. obsessiveness (originally OCD) Odd thinking. respect social rules Stereotypical Masculine/Feminine Interests/Behaviors Level of trust. anxiety. anger. demands attention.
” Also. Some test items are presented with the same question in both positive
and negative form. Ex:” I am outgoing in the presence of others” or “I tend withdraw from people . Not the same as intentionally faking. Inconsistent answers can reflect carelessness
Some high in social desirability-the tendency of respondents to reply in a manner that
will be viewed favorably by others. Others will present themselves as having psychotic symptoms when in fact they are normal. MMPI-2 measures social desirability directly. Confirmation bias. Special scales on the MMPI-2 are designed to deal with faking good or bad. Half of the time word is in opposite manner.respondents can usually find information that confirms the statement rather than look for evidence that disconfirms it.
Some more likely to agree with test questions. “Do you work a little harder when given a
difficult task?” (Yes) “Do you usually give up when you find a task difficult?” (Yes). Sometimes “true” and sometimes “false” are indicative of a trait. same question altogether can appear.Advantages of MMPPI-2
Some times people will intentionally present themselves in a better light than they really
Others are carless. these individuals may do this habitually or unconsciously.
Jensen-Campbell. 1998).Precautions/Limitations of MMPPI-2
Researchers in one study allowed a group of university students to indicate when
they did not know the meaning of a word. clinicians
must pay to administer and utilize the test.
While quick computer-generated narrative reports are available and can be a
useful tool. they should be evaluated and edited if needed by a trained clinician.
Lengthy and Time Consuming( 60-90min).567 items. Makes people more subject to carelessness.
Not a replacement for a clinical interview Diagnosis should NOT be made on MMPI-2 Results alone
. Some test questions were not understood by 32% of students (Grazina.. & Hair. A person with a lower reading ability can take up to two or more hours to complete
Because the MMPI-2 is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. Steele. longest of all commonly
used personality inventories.