Sheet-Metal

• A large proportion of products around us are made out of sheet-metal • Electronic enclosures, white-ware, cars, hardware, computer components, robots, etc. • Most common metals used are aluminium and steel

Sheet-Metal Manufacturing Methods
• • • • • CNC Fabrication Laser cutting Bending Hard-tooled Spun

Bending
Bending is a manufacturing process by which metal can be deformed by plastically deforming the material and changing its shape. The material is stressed beyond its yield strength but below its ultimate tensile strength.

Bending • Bending is done using Press Brakes or bend brakes. Press Brakes can normally have a capacity of 20 to 200 tons to accommodate stock from 1m to 4. It is held in place with hold-downs. • Programmable back gages. the ram with the appropriately shaped punch descends and forms the v-shaped bend. and multiple die sets currently available can make bending a very economical process . The upper part of the press.5m • The material is placed on the die. and positioned in place with stops and/or gages.

Types of Bending • Bending Blank Punch Blank Punch Die Die .

Types of Bending • Bottoming Blank Punch Blank Punch Die Die .

Types of Bending • Coining Blank Punch Blank Punch Die Die .

Somewhere within the thickness of the metal lies its Neutral Axis. direction of material grain. the inside surface of the bend is compressed and the outer surface of the bend is stretched. etc. the radius of the bend. The location of this line is often referred to as the K factor .Bend Allowances • When sheet metal is bent. the ambient temperature. and the method by which it is being bent. which is a line in the metal that is neither compressed nor stretched • The location of the neutral line varies depending on the material itself.

t K-Factor = t /T T .Bend Allowances • K-factor is a ratio that represents the location of the neutral line with respect to the thickness of the sheet metal part.

Bend Allowances • If you have a 100mm long flat bar of 2mm Aluminium and bend it at 90 deg in the middle.8mm each STEP 1 Length Y STEP 2 Total Flat Length Length X Thickness . In fact they will measure around 51. the 2 legs will NOT measure 50mm each.

BD where: Lt = total flat length L1 and L2 are shown in the illustration BD = bend deduction value .Bend Allowances vs Bend Deductions BEND ALLOWANCE BEND DEDUCTION L1 L2 L1 L2 Lt = L1 + L2 + BA where: Lt = total flat length L1 and L2 are shown in the illustration BA = bend allowance value Lt = L1 + L2 .

Calculating Bend Allowances BA= πA(R + KT) /180 where: BA = bend allowance R = inside bend radius K = K factor.5) T = material thickness t = distance from inside face to neutral line A = bend angle in degrees .25-0. which is t / T (usually 0.

BA OSSB = tan(A/2) x T + R .Calculating Bend Deductions BD = 2 x OOSB .

Sheetmetal Rules Rules in SolidWorks for Sheetmetal: •Parts have a constant thickness •Thickness faces are always perpendicular to the bend faces (material is never sheared at an angle) •The bend faces are limited to cylindrical. planar. conical shapes •The exceptions are form tools and Lofted Bends .

The Flatten Test Can it be flattened? Why?? Or Why not?? Ans. = Yes. All cones .

= No.The Flatten Test Can it be flattened: Why?? Or Why not?? Ans. Spline .

Insert Bends Flatten Bends No Bends Rip Base Flange / Tab Miter Flange Old School Fold Unfold Sketched Bends Edge Flange New School Closed Corner Hem Break / Trim Corner Jog Lofted Bend Sheetmetal Functions .

•Generally used only for imported parts and rolled parts •Start with an open sketch and a “Base Flange” feature •Much more powerful •Way more options . revolve.Two Basic Methods There are two basic methods SolidWorks sheetmetal can be used: •Model the part using regular SolidWorks functions like extrude. etc.

Base Flange Base Flange requires an open sketch .

hit the button. pull the flange •Flange Length and Position buttons are self explanatory •Offset allows you to create a dogleg flange •You can also change the angle of the flange .Edge Flange Select an edge.

Edge Flange Edit Flange Profile allows you to change the sketch of the flange and alter the shape .

Miter Flange Miter Flange requires an open sketch on the edge of the part Sketch Propagate to tangent Allowance for flattening .

Fold / Unfold To put a feature across a bend. then fold it again Select face to remain stationary Use offset entities to make slots! “Collect” finds all the unfolded bends . unfold the bend. put in the feature.

it just adds a tab to the sketch face .Tab There are no settings for the Tab function.

Sketched Bend Draw a line all the way across the part Don’t cross bend lines Line must go all the way across Control bend angle and direction Black dot selects stationary face .

Jog Like a double sketched bend Allows you to keep the original length of the tab or add material as it jogs .

Hems Buttons and dimensions are self explanatory .

Corner Break Chamfers or rounds sharp outside corners Puts you into a selection filter model to pick short edges across the thickness and bend faces Selecting a face breaks all corners on face .

Forming Tools Forming tools drag and drop from the Design Library Forming tools maintain a constant thickness (they may add mass to the part) Red faces create holes in the part Only works on sheetmetal parts .

Old School Chamfers or rounds sharp outside corners Build box shell Rip corners Insert bends Flatten .

.Finer Points How does SW handle bend allowances? •K Factor •Bend Allowance •Bend Deduction •Bend Table A very good mathematical description of how SW handles bend allowances is available as a Knowledge Base article on the SW website.

.Finer Points How does SW handle bend reliefs? •Tear = zero thickness cut •Rectangular = default depth is half of thickness •Obround = full round cut These settings are kept in the Sheetmetal feature in the tree.

which allows the thickness of the entire part to be changed at once Link Value symbol .Finer Points Sheetmetal automatically creates a link value called “thickness”.

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