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Ages and Stages The Greeks Early Technology
The Stone Age – Lower and Middle Paleolithic 2.6Mya-1.2Mya
Upper Paleolithic (40kBC to 8kBC)
erectus 600,000 B.C.: Earliest major stone tool manufacturing site by H. erectus (India) 400,000 B.C.: Earliest presence of a vocal tract in H. sapiens 300,000 B.C.: Earliest dated spear (England).
Upper Paleolithic (40kBC to 8kBC)
150,000 B.C.: Evidence of controlled use of fire 100,000 B.C.: Intentional burials by Neanderthals at Teshik-Tesh Cave in Uzbekistan in Central Asia. 48,000 B.C.: Homo sapiens sapiens everywhere except North & South America. Early flake stone tools appear on islands in Southeast Asia.
sophisticated stone tools Bronze and Iron Ages follow Major cities and civilizations rise later
SUB-SAHARA, AFRICA 5000 B.C. TO 3000 B.C.
Ages and Stages
tools (2.5Mya, EAfrica by H. habilis) Fire (1.5Mya?) Language (150kya, EAfrica) Numbers on bones (30kBC W+C Europe) Farming, domestication of wolves (10kBC), sheep (9kBC) Wheat farming (7kBC) → beer? Goats (6.5kBC) → milk → cheese, yogurt War weapons (5.5kBC Turkey), walled communities
number system (5kBC Egypt) Astronomical calendars (4.8kBC Sudan) 4kBC-3.5kBC
(Eurasia); plows, irrigation (Iraq)
wheeled vehicle (Russia), sailboat (Egypt) 3kBC: cotton (India); draft oxen, potter’s wheel (Iraq); abacus (ME, Med); hieroglyphs (Egypt)
Earliest Civilizations 2. Mesopotamia – 5kBC 3. Egypt – 3kBC 4. India – 2.5kBC 5. China – 2kBC 6. Greece* – 1.5kBC
What they had: • Major* rivers → agriculture What they all achieved: • Arithmetic, writing, astronomy What about other places? • Smaller fragmented settlements
(~600 BC) – first Greek philosopher; invented deductive math; said to stop a war by predicting an eclipse; said water is the ultimate substance; the first futures trader? Pythagoras – started a cult based on numbers: geometry, irrational numbers, music
More Greeks and Their Elements
(apeiron or “the infinite”), Xenophanes (earth), Anaximenes (air), Heraclitus (fire, strife or change), Parmenides (change is an illusion), Empedocles (water, air, fire, earth) Democritus (eternal, indivisible atoms of different kinds)
(~450 BC, Elea) – invented the Achilles and tortoise paradox; reason, not senses, is the way to truth Socrates, Plato – mainly social philosophers;
abstract math reflects heaven’s perfection
– diseases have natural causes (imbalance of vital fluids); Hippocratic Oath
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
natural philosophy Lectured in his Lyceum, a peripatetic school Collected manuscripts later to become the great Library of Alexandria His lectures fill a 150-volume encyclopedia; only 50 survive Contributions to science: symbolic logic, biological classification Did little experimentation; often wrong but influence extended for two millennia
(water, air, fire, earth) plus quintessence, stuff of stars and planets Natural states:
Earth objects stay at rest Heavenly bodies revolve in perfect circles
causes – “explanations”
Material cause – bronze causes statue, silver causes cup; x is what y is [made] out of Formal cause – account of the essence; form and pattern; formal cause of bowl is “bowl-shaped”; x is what it is to be y Efficient cause – father causes child; x is what produces y Final cause – the end or “sake of”; x is what y is for
More Big Names
(b. 325 BC) – codified geometry; proved that √2 was irrational; optics Archimedes (287-212BC) – buoyancy; simple machines; estimated π Eratosthenes (276-196BC, Cyrene) – librarian of Alexandria in Egypt; “Beta” – second best in everything; estimated size of the earth
Θ = 1/50 or 7.2°, D = 5000 stadia, 1 stadium = ~160 m C=?
Other Greek Technology
machine Geared machines, simple clocks War machinery Steam power Magnets
If the Greeks were so smart, why didn’t the scientific revolution start with them?
much war? Too academic (ivory tower), no popularization? Too few scientists? Slaves and disdain for menial work? Too much Aristotle (and other irrational ideas)? Too much theorizing, too little experiment?
After Aristotle (~0 AD)
(ca. 100 BC) Geographika: 17volume atlas Pliny (23-79 AD) Natural History: 37volume error-filled encyclopedia Ptolemy (ca. 130 AD), Almagest; wrong model, but excellent observations Galen (ca. 170 AD), medicine; pneuma (senses, reason, imagination, memory), “seeds of disease” (germs?)
What about the women? What about the Philippines?
Women in Early Science
En Hedu'Anna (2354 BCE) Aganice (1878 BCE) Aglaonike (Greece) Arate of Cyrene (Greece) Diotama (Greece) Gargi (India) Hipparchia (Greece) Hypatia (370 - 415)
Lasthenia, (Greece) Lilovarti, (India) Maritrayee (India) Perictione (Greece) Shi Dun (China) Theano (Greece) Themista ( Greece)
Hypatia (370 – 415 AD)
by her father Theon, Alexandria scholar Socrates Scholasticus (b.380) in Ecclesiastical History:
Hypatia “made such attainments in literature and science, as to far surpass all the philosophers of her own time. Having succeeded to the school of Plato and Plotinus, she explained the principles of philosophy to her auditors, many of whom came from a distance to receive her instructions.”
of Neo-Platonists; considered a heretic by Cyril, Christian Patriarch of Alexandria, whose followers later kill her
They allegedly burn later the Library of Alexandria, though there are other suspects Her death and destruction of the Library mark the start of the Dark Ages in Western History
theory (H. O. Beyer): Negritos (25kBC) → Indonesians (3k-1kBC) → Malays (200BC onward)
Almost certainly wrong!
“Express Train” (P. Bellwood) left S. China in 7000 BC, in RP ca. 4500 BC “Slow Boat” (S. Oppenheimer) from Polynesia
prehistory still unclear
More archaeological data need to be collected and reconciled with linguistic, and genetic data