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• Used in listing and comparing/contrasting ideas • In listing, if the first word is a noun, all nouns must follow
– I want to buy a dog, a cat, and a hamster. O
• If you start with a gerund, all gerunds must follow
– I love cooking, reading, and to watch TV. X – I love cooking, reading, and watching TV. O
(a noun phrase and object of preposition) The teacher wanted to know which country we came from and what our future goals were. (both noun clauses) The language skills of the students in the evening classes are the same as the language skills of the students in the day classes. Spaniards. (noun clauses and a compliment) The language skills of the students in the evening classes are the same as the day classes. (verbs + compliments and a clause) Parallel My English conversation class is made up of Chinese. and practice speaking English. Spaniards.Not Parallel My English conversation class is made up of Chinese. they do their homework. (all verbs + compliments) The teacher wanted to know which country we came from and our future goals. you must organize your thoughts. and Bosnians. (all nouns) The students who do well attend class. (nouns and clause) The students who do well attend class. and some are from Bosnia. and practice speaking in English. (pronouns can be used) •Before you write a paper or before you take a test. you must organize your thoughts. (You do not have to repeat all the words in the second part) . •Before you write a paper or take a test. do their homework. (both noun phrases) •The language skills of the students in the evening classes are the same as those of the students in the day classes.
Parallelism with Coordinators • And. (prepositional phrase but prep. on animal life. or prep. (prep phr. and my mother stays home and sleeps all day. phr.) Pesticides cannot be sold if they have harmful effects on humans. phr) .. or. but are to be written in parallel form My father goes out and works. or on the environment. (Clause and clause) The states regulate the noise created by motor vehicles but not by commercial aircraft. prep phr.
(gerund phrases) • Air pollutants may come either from the ocean or from car engines. not only…but also use parallelism • A new law provides the means for both regulating pesticides and ordering their removal if they are dangerous. either…or. (noun phr. (prep.Parallelism with Paired Conjunctions • Both…and. + prep phr.) • Many people are not only concerned about money but also worried about jobs.) • Neither my mother nor my father is home. neither…nor. phr. (adj.) .
Practice 1 .
Sentence Problems .
Sentence Fragments • Incomplete sentences or only parts of sentences • A complete sentence must have at least one independent clause (a subject and verb) .
Because some students work part-time while taking a full load of classes. does not express a complete thought .What is Wrong? 1. • Only a dependent clause – Begins with a subordinator – Does not include an independent clause – Thus.
• Delete the subordinator – Some students work part-time while taking a full load of courses. .How to Correct • Add an independent clause – Because some students work part-time while taking a full load of courses. they have very little free time.
• Neither sentence has a verb (and compliments) . For example. the increase in the cost of renting an apartment. To live and work for at least a year in a foreign country.What is Wrong? 2.
.How to Correct • Rewrite the sentences so they have verbs – For example. – To live and work for at least a year in a foreign country has always been my dream. the increase in the cost of renting an apartment is one reason for more people being homeless.
Teachers who give too much homework. the adjective clause is a dependent clause – The noun still needs a verb .What is Wrong? 3. • This is a noun + and adjective clause – Thus.
because.How to Correct • Finish the independent clause – Teachers who give too much homework are unpopular. when. if. before…) – Make sure there are two clauses with them . • Always check your own writing for fragments • Subordinators are danger words (although.
Rewriting Fragments .
• Although women are criticized for being too cautious. men consider women drivers incompetent… • Paragraph 2 • For example. • Also. .• Paragraph 1 • Believing that they are far better drivers than women. insurance rates for women are 20% lower than they are for men. they are really just being safe drivers. the greater percentage of accidents involving death are caused by men.
• On the other hand. • Men can learn to become safe drivers if they adopt…. women drivers who regard the automobile as a convenience like a washing machine. • Paragraph 4 • All in all. women are safe drivers because of their attitudes. using it as a weapon when they feel particularly aggressive or using it as a status symbol. . men regard the automobile as an extension of their egos.• Paragraph 3 • On the one hand.
complex.Choppy Sentences • Are sentences that are too short • Are effective if not used too many times in a row • Overused are not good academic writing • Are easy to correct – Combine one or two short sentences into a compound. or compound-complex sentence – Delete repeated words or phrases .
Dams produce hydraulic power. Windmills are relatively new.Coordinators • If the sentence expresses equal ideas • Wind is an enduring power. • Both wind and water are enduring sources of power. . Dams have produced hydraulic power for a long time. Water is also an unlimited energy source. but windmills are relatively new. They have existed for a long time.
Natural sources of energy are decreasing. . Solar energy.Subordinators • If the sentences express unequal ideas – One sentence is less important than the other • We must find new sources of energy. which is energy from the sun. Solar energy is energy from the sun. • We must find new sources of energy because natural sources of energy are dwindling. Solar energy is a promising new source of energy. is a promising new source.
X • Comma splice = 2 independent clauses joined by just a comma without a coordinator – My family went to Australia. . then they emigrated to Canada.Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices • Run-on = 2 independent clauses joined without any punctuation – My family went to Australia then they emigrated to Canada.
then they emigrated to Canada.How to Correct 1. Add a period: – My family went to Australia. and then they emigrated to Canada. Then they emigrated to Canada. 3. Add a subordinator: – My family went to Australia before they emigrated to Canada. – After my family went to Australia. 4. they emigrated to Canada. Add a semicolon: – My family went to Australia. . 2. Add a coordinator: – My family went to Australia.
• Paragraph 1 • This report showed that more than one-third of the … grades awarded in the spring semester 2005 were A’s while only 1.1 percent were F’s. for almost two thirds were A’s. • Paragraph 2 • Investigation … indicates that the admissions offices of these schools are discounting high grades … of SMSC students. this means… • Grade inflation may. therefore. hurt a student from SMSC who intends to apply to a graduate or professional school because he or she may not be accepted… . • The percentage of A’s awarded to graduate students was even higher.
but. so. . so they are usually exhausted by the weekend. and they have to study at night.Stringy Sentences • Sentences with too many clauses – Usually connected with and. and then they work all afternoon. and because • This is how we speak and not how we write • Many students attend classes all morning.
Since they also have to study at night. OR • Because many students attend classes all morning. and study at night. divide the clauses or recombine them • Many students attend classes all morning.• To correct. they are usually exhausted by the weekend. and work all afternoon. they are usually exhausted by the weekend. work all afternoon. .