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Passage Planning

Phases of Passage Planning

Appraisal Planning Execution


Appraisal This is the process of gathering together all information relevant to the proposed passage from publications and other available sources

Publications to be consulted when planning a passage The following publications and sources listed below relevant to the passage, and not limited to, should be consulted :
Admiralty Chart Catalogue Admiralty Sailing Directions Admiralty Tide Tables Admiralty List of Radio Signals Tidal Stream Atlas Admiralty List of Lights Notices to Mariners Annual Summary of Notices to Mariners Admiralty Distance Tables Mariners Handbook Radio Navigational Warnings Routeing Chart Ocean Passages of the World (for Ocean Passages)


Having made the fullest possible appraisal, the navigating officer can now act upon the masters instructions to prepare a detailed plan of the passage. This should cover the whole passage, from berth to berth, and include all waters where a pilot will be on board.

The formulation of the plan will involve completion of the following tasks: Draw track boldly considering draft margins of safety Greater clearances if means of position fixing not good, strong currents and fog Possibility of engine or steering gear failure Indicate along track in 3-fig notation true direction Shade NO GO AREAS. Emphasize dangers near track Show distances from destination Mark radar conspicuous objects, RACONS A/C positions shown on track with W/O positions. ETA at course alteration points Current and tidal streams direction and rate Mark useful transits, clearing bearings clearing ranges

Parallel index lines, cross index ranges and dead ranges Where use of echo sounder would be anticipated Next chart indication Crossing traffic and areas of high traffic density TSS and reporting points Positions where extra personnel will be required Positions for calling master, pilot and giving notice to ER Where anchors to be prepared Advance warning of potential hazards Raising dipping ranges of lights show arcs with names Alternative position fixing methods for night/day Compass courses Where manual steering engaged

Navigational warnings currently affecting chart Times of sun rise and sun set daylight and night Safe speed at various stages - squat and turns A/c points with W/O pos. on large scale charts minimum UKC show critical areas points where accuracy of position fixing is critical contingency plans for alternative action in emergency Highlight tidal diamonds and indicate times of HW and LW for the various ports.

Leading lines Leading lines are transits which form a track line to be made good to ensure that the ship passes clear of danger. Clearing bearings and clearing ranges Clearing bearings and clearing ranges are bearings and ranges of charted objects that can be used to ensure that a ship is remaining within a safe area or is not approaching a danger.

Altering course When planning turns in confined waters, it is good practice to prepare the turn with a reference point on the new course. Contingency plans For possible contingencies, quick effective response for the unexpected. Engine failure, steering loss, port or channel closures, radar failure, reduction in visibility, heavy traffic at crucial points, movement or closure of a pilot station

First step iis to identify and mark 'no-go' areas Same charts supplied to VLCC or a coaster . Chart made suitable by marking 'limiting danger lines' - 'no-go areas.' Lines drawn on chart to highlight where the vessel cannot go. Allowance for maximum draft tide etc. Benefits forces factors affecting UKC it forces a concentrated study of the chart Not enough to depend ondepth contour lines. Lines - prominent to highlight immediate danger Important to draw no-go boundaries accurately.

Insert the margins of safety'. Normally this will be an area either side of the vessels intended track that may be acceptable to deviate within, under normal circumstances. In the approaches to ports as well as in some areas, however, this may be the traffic lanes already on the chart.

Vessels intended track to be drawn. Wheel over positions marked on chart. When marking the W/O positions consider rudder, speed and depth Useful to insert speed to be maintained if an accurate ETA is required at a certain point, e.g. for picking up pilots.

Before entering restricted waters - abort points To proceed further all systems be fully operational. Also action to be taken to abort also entered E.g. engine speed reduced and direction of turn In addition,contingency planning also done. Plans be considered main engine failure, steering loss, port or channel closures, radar failure, reduction in visibility, heavy traffic at crucial points, movement or closure of a pilot station, or any of the accidents and emergencies that can occur to a ship on passage.

& C O N T I N G E N C Y


Clearing bearings for hazards, and to assist in maintaining the track should be inserted onto the chart. These give a very quick method of checking that the vessel is clear of dangers Clearing ranges used to ensure that a minimum and maximum distance is maintained from a identifiable mark. These should be considered on all vessels where pararallel indexing is not being employed and may especially beneficial when completing a turn.