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Tod Stephens

Americas Deepwater Ventures Drilling Engineer

**DRILLING TECHNICIAN SCHOOL
**

ExxonMobil Development Company Houston, Texas 2004

Lesson Objectives

• List the major parts of the mud pump and determine the correct liner size for a given set of drilling parameters. • List the 5 major parameters that need to be considered when optimizing the hydraulic system. • List the 3 parameters that need to be considered when estimated the optimal flow rate. • List 8 things that need to be considered when evaluating ECD. • What are the two most common methods for optimizing bit hydraulics and in which case would you choose one over the other.

Lesson Objectives

• Calculate the appropriate nozzle sizing for a given TFA. • Calculate the pressure drop in the drilling string and annulus for a give flowrate. • List 7 possible sources of inaccuracy when estimating pressure loss through the circulating system. • List 3 ways to reduce the pressure loss through the circulating system. • List 6 parameters that contribute to surge and swab. • List five possible uses of PWD data • 5 responsibilities of the DT with regards to hydraulics

collection & interpretation • What can I do .Pressure & Flow Rate • Optimal flow rate for Hole Cleaning and Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) • Bit hydraulics .Lesson Outline • Functions of Circulating System • Components of the Circulating System • Pump requirements .Hydraulic Horsepower & Impact Force • Calculating pressure losses in system • Hydraulics related design issues • Surge and Swab / Breaking Circulation • PWD data .

Functions of the Circulating System • To clean the bottom of the hole • To cool the bit and lubricate the drill string • To transport the cuttings to the surface • To support the walls of the wellbore • To prevent entry of formation fluids into the wellbore .

Kelly 8 .Standpipe 6 .Circulating System 6 5 3 1 .Mud Pump 4 .Centrifugal Pump 3 .Drill Bit 11 .Drill Collar 10 .Drill Pipe 9 .Swivel 7 .Pulsation Dampener 5 .Shale Shaker 4 7 12 13 11 14 8 1 2 10 9 .BOP 12 .Bell Nipple 13 .Flow Line 14 .Mud Tank 2 .

we need to calculate all of the frictional pressure losses in the system for the desired flowrate • The standpipe limitations also need to be considered .Mud Pump Overview • Mud pumps supply hydraulic energy • Everything else in the circulating system consumes energy • To size a pump / liners.

Mud Pump • 500 to 2200 HP – 80 to 1215 GPM – 0 to 7500 psi • Triplex – fixed stroke length – vary liner diameter • Triplex efficiency – Volumetric (Ev) = 93% – Mechanical (Em) = 90 % .

Px Q 1714 x Em x Ev Output HHP = Rated Input HP x Em x Ev where: Q = Flow rate. % . % Ev = Volumetric efficiency of pump.Mud Pump • Hydraulic Horsepower – Mud pumps are rated on the basis of Input Horsepower: Rated Input HP = – Or. psi Em = Mechanical efficiency of pump. gal/min P = Circulating pressure.

755 4 5000 GPM 222 194 166 139 111 1. 800 input horsepower at 160 strokes per minute 6.Mud Pump National 8-P-80 Performance Chart 8-1/2" stroke length. ** Rated speed and input horsepower .5 4395 GPM 281 246 211 176 140 1.5 2940 GPM 420 367 315 262 210 2. gal.167 4.25 2280 GPM 542 474 406 339 271 6 2470 GPM 500 437 375 312 250 3. 3.386 * Based on 90% mechanical efficiency and 100% volumetric efficiency.622 5 3560 GPM 347 303 260 217 173 2.387 Pump Speed. Dischg. Pres. SPM **160 140 120 100 80 Liner Size. psi Max Input HP *HHP **800 720 700 630 600 540 500 450 400 360 Vol/stroke.121 5. inches Max.

6-1/2” Liner Output HHP = Rated Input HP x Em x Ev Output HHP = 600 x 90% x 100% = 540 HPP – But what if Ev = 93% Output HHP = 600 x 90% x 93% = 502 HPP Output HHP = Px Q 1714 1714 x 502 = 377 gpm 2280 Q= .Mud Pump • Efficiency Calculations – 120 SPM.

in Max Flow Rate.75 6 50 2000 0 6.Mud Pump Pump Liner Size Vs Discharge Pressure / Flow Rate 5500 Discharge Pressure Flow Rate 100% Ev Flow Rate 93% Ev 5000 350 450 400 Maximum Discharge Pressure.25 4. psi 4500 300 4000 250 3500 200 150 3000 100 2500 Pump Data: National 8-P-80 Flow rate @ 120 SPM 90% Em 4 4.25 Pump Liner Size.75 5 5.5 5. gpm .25 5.5 4.

4 x 12 Where: VC = Volume per cylinder.Mud Pump • Volume Calculations (Triplex) – 6-1/4” Liner. 8-1/2” Stroke Vc = LS2 x SL 1029. bbl LS = Liner size. in SL = Liner length. in Volume per Stroke (BPS) = VC x 3 Volume per Stroke (GPM) = BPS x 42 .

Mud Pump Exercise • Drilling 6-1/4” from 8500’ MD to 12.000’ MD which historically has taken 2 bits. Estimated starting pressure 2200 psi and ending pressure 2600 psi. The Ev is ~93%. The required flow rate is 300 gpm and the drilling contractor will only run the pumps 110 SPM (maximum). – What is the appropriate liner size? – Can one liner size make the entire hole section? .

to calculate flowrate 110 SPM.Mud Pump Exercise 1) Estimate the appropriate liner size to start the hole. Answer: 6” 2) Interpolate between 120 SPM and 100 SPM. Answer: 343 gal/min 3) Calculate flowrate with an efficiency of 93% Answer: 319 gal/min .

Mud Pump Power End Pinion Shaft Crankshaft Crosshead Fluid End Eccentric Strap Extension Rod .

Mud Pump Fluid End Discharge Module Discharge Valve Cover Suction Module Liner Valve Seat Piston Rod Suction Piston .

Mud Pump Pulsation Dampener Nitrogen Filled Bladder .

Mud Pump “Power End” Pinion Shaft Gear Crankshaft Eccentric Straps .

Mud Pump “Power End” Pinion Shaft Crosshead Eccentric Strap .

Mud Pump “Power End” Crosshead Crosshead Guide .

Mud Pump “Fluid End” Block Manifold Cylinder Head Suction .

Mud Pump “Fluid End” Piston Piston Rod Valve Seat .

Wellbore Hydraulics Design • Hole cleaning and avoiding lost returns • Bit nozzle optimization • Drill string design • Determining mud pump / standpipe pressure requirements • Flow rate requirements for downhole tools – MWD / LWD – PDM .

Optimizing Flow Rate • Annular Velocity “Hole Cleaning” • ROP “Bit Hydraulics” • Operate Down Hole Equipment – PDM (Motor or Turbine) – MWD / LWD / PWD .

but not so high that the hole is washed out. – Must be high enough to keep the cuttings moving upward at a sufficient rate.Optimizing Flow Rate • Annular Velocity – The speed of the fluid moving up the annulus. . carrying capacity of the drilling fluid. and type of formation being drilled effect the velocity required to clean the hole. – Penetration rate.

1500 gpm 12-1/4” hole: 700 . gal/min – Dh = hole diameter or casing ID.750 gpm (check ECD) 6” hole: 200 .Do2) – AV = annular velocity.120 ft/min minimum AV – – – – 17-1/2” hole: 1200 . ft/min – Q = flow rate. in • Rule of Thumb .300 gpm (check ECD) .1200 gpm 8-1/2” hole: 350 .Optimizing Flow Rate • Annular Velocity “AV” – AV = (24. in – Do = outside diameter of either the drill pipe or collars.51 x Q) / (Dh2 .

Optimizing Flow Rate Flowrate vs Annular Velocity 200 Drilling 12-1/4" Hole with 5" Drill Pipe 175 Annular Velocity. ft/min 150 125 120 ft/min "Rule of Thumb" 100 75 12-1/4" Hole 12-1/2" Hole 13" Hole 13-1/2" Hole 14" Hole 50 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Flowrate. gpm .

Hole Cleaning Ratio (HCR) • Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) .Optimizing Flow Rate • Slip velocity (Cuttings Transport) – hole angle – washout – cuttings size • ROP & Cuttings Bed Height .

. Cuttings beds are stationary in high angle wells (> 50 degrees) but they are avalanching in intermediate angle wells (between 20 and 50 degrees).Hole Cleaning Ratio “HCR” • Cuttings Bed Height – The height of a cutting bed with the drill pipe on the low side of the wellbore.

For rock bits. For PDC bits. it is typically the Junk Slot Area (JSA). expressed as a percentage of the cross-sectional area of the gauge hole. it is the minimum open area around the bit. .Hole Cleaning Ratio “HCR” • Bit Open Area – The minimum open area between the bit body and a gauge hole.

– When HCR is greater than 1. When the HCR is less than 1. Or in other words.Hole Cleaning Ratio “HCR” • Hole Cleaning Ratio “HCR” – An empirical correlation to indicate hole cleaning problems while pulling out of the hole.1. the bit/BHA can be pulled through the cuttings bed. the bit/BHA can have difficulties pulling through the cuttings bed. to measure the ability to pull a bit/BHA through the cuttings bed. .1.

Hole Cleaning Ratio “HCR” .

8 1200 HCR . Mud = 10.1 Parameters: Hole Size = 12.5 1. in HCR 1.1 4. in 5.0 1. gpm 1100 0.0 700 800 900 1000 Flowrate.Optimizing Flow Rate Flowrate vs HCR / Cutting Bed Height 6.7 ppg WBM Rotary = 50 rpm 1.9 3.25" DP = 5" Inclination = 60 deg ROP = 50 ft/hr.5 0.2 4.0 Target HCR = 1.5 Cutting Bed Height.3 Cuttings Bed Height.0 1 3.4 5.

ft/hr 80 90 100 .2 1.Optimizing Flow Rate ROP vs HCR 1.9 0.85 0.15 12-1/4" Hole Target HCR = 1.8 50 60 70 ROP.0" Hole 1.7 ppg WBM Rotary = 50 rpm Flowrate = 900 gpm HCR 0.1 1.1 12-1/2" Hole 13.95 0.05 1 Parameters: Bit Size = 12-1/4" DP = 5" Inclination = 60 deg Mud = 10.

Equivalent Circulating Density ECD is the hydrostatic head of the mud column plus the circulating frictional pressure losses in the annulus ECD = MW + Pannulus 0.052 TVD where: ECD = equivalent circulating density (ppg) MW = mud weight (ppg) Pannulus = pressure loss in annulus (psi) TVD = true vertical depth (feet) .

Causes of ECD • ECD depends on – flow rate & wellbore ID/drill pipe OD – well depth and profile – downhole temperature / pressure – cuttings in flow stream and beds – mud properties – drill string rotation – hole washouts – eccentric drill string .

Cuttings Bed Effect 0 0 2000 13-3/8” Casing 2000 Suspended cuttings 4000 4000 MD (ft) 6000 12 1/4” Open Hole 6000 8000 8000 Cuttings bed 10000 10000 12000 0 20 40 60 80 100 Inclination (degrees) 12000 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cuttings Bed Height (inches) .

ECD vs Measured Depth Suspended cuttings Suspended cuttings MD (ft) ECD (ppg) Local Mud Weight (ppg) .

5-1/2” vs 5”) .Significance of ECD • To prevent lost returns. ECD can be high due – Need for higher circulating rates and rotational speeds for hole cleaning – MD/TVD ratio (same pressure loss at shallower depths) – Often larger DP (I. the margin between pore pressure and fracture gradient can be low • In extended-reach wells (ERW). ECD < fracture gradient • In deepwater wells.e.

ECD in Deepwater .

**ECD from ERD Wells
**

ECD vs TVD Depth

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

True Vertical Depth (ft)

Mud Weight = 10.0 ppg Annulus Pressure Drop = 390 psi

80° B&H 55° B&H Straight Hole

7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 -1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

9-5/8" Casing @ 15,000 ft MD / 5,000 ft TVD ECD = 11.5 ppg

9-5/8" Casing @ 15,000 ft MD / 10,000 ft TVD ECD = 10.75 ppg

9-5/8" Casing @ 15,000 ft MD / 15,000 ft TVD ECD = 10.5 ppg

ECD = MW + Annulus Pressure Loss 0.052 x TVD

10000

11000

12000

13000

14000

15000

Vertical Section (ft)

ECD due to Drill String Rotation

Sacate SA-2

ECDs from PWD Data with 9.3 ppg Escaid Mud

Flow Rate Rotation 0 RPM 40 RPM 80 RPM 120 RPM 280 GPM 10.24 ppg 10.34 ppg 10.44 ppg 10.49 ppg 365 GPM 10.35 ppg 10.54 ppg 10.64 ppg 10.71 ppg 440 GPM 10.52 ppg 10.74 ppg 10.81 ppg 10.91 ppg

Bit inside 9-5/8-inch casing at 22,295 ft 4-1/2 x 5-1/2-inch drill pipe No cuttings

Flowrate Summary

Action

Increase drill pipe size to 5-1/2" from 5" in 12-1/4" hole Increase flow rate from 600 to 800 GPM in 12-1/4" hole Decrease ROP (at constant flow rate) Increase drill pipe rotation (at constant flow rate)

AV

HCR

ECD

– The removal of the cuttings at the same rate at which they are generated.Bit Hydraulics • Bit hydraulics enhance the mechanical action of the bit through three major mechanisms. • The pressure at the bit multiplied by the flowrate is a measure of the power available for cleaning the borehole bottom. . – Bottom scouring to remove filter cake and crushed material from the borehole bottom. – Cutting structure cleaned to prevent the accumulation and packing of material between the cutting elements.

– Units: Impact Force (lbf) .Bit Hydraulics • Maximum Hydraulic Horsepower Method – The borehole bottom is best cleaned when the hydraulic horsepower at the bit is at a maximum. – Units: Hydraulic Horsepower (hhp) or HSI • Maximum Impact Force Method – The borehole bottom is best cleaned when the force exerted by the jets is at a maximum. – Pressure drop across the bit is 48% of the total pump pressure. – Pressure drop across the bit is 65% of the total pump pressure.

Bit Hydraulics • Borehole depth and the downhole conditions determine which optimization method should be used. . – Maximizing Impact Force is best • Production Hole .Deep. • Surface Hole . – Maximizing Hydraulic Horsepower is best • Field history and equipment limitations must be considered in determining bit hydraulics.high ROP and large volume of cuttings generated. smaller diameter. small volume of cuttings generated. lower ROP.

Bit Hydraulics Maximum Impact and HHP at the Bit Increasing Flowrate .

gal/min Pb = pressure drop at bit. hp Dh = Hole Diameter. hp Q = flow rate.2732 x Hb Dh2 Hb = hydraulic horsepower at the bit.Bit Hydraulics Basic Equations • Hydraulic Horsepower Hb = where: Pb x Q 1714 Hb = hydraulic horsepower at the bit. psi • Hydraulic Horsepower to hole area HSI = where: 1. in .

Bit Hydraulics Basic Equations • Impact Force = 0. lbf Q = flow rate. ppg . gal/min Pb = pressure drop at bit. psi = mud weight.0173 x Q x (Pb x )0.5 where: = impact force.

Bit Hydraulics Basic Equations • Pressure Drop Across the Bit Pbit = where: Q 2 12031xAt 2 = fluid density (ppg) Q = flow rate (gal/min) At = total nozzle cross-sectional area “TFA” (in2) N = Nozzle size ( ie 12. 18. 20) At = 4 x 32 2 x (N1 + N22 + …) 2 .

9135 2 = 863 psi .7 x 9002 12031 x 0. and Impact Force? 1) Calculate bit TFA: At = 4 x 322 x (172 + 172 + 172 + 182) = 0. HSI.7 ppg WBM at 900 gpm.9135 in2 2) Calculate bit pressure drop Pbit = 10.Bit Hydraulics Example #1 • Drilling 12-1/4” hole with 10. – What is the estimated pressure drop across the bit. rock bit with 3 x 17/32 jets and 1 x 18/32 center jet.

7)0.84 4) Calculate Impact Force = 0.0173 x 900 x (863 x 10.Bit Hydraulics Example #1 3) Calculate HSI: 863 x 900 = 453 hp Hb = 1714 HSI = 1.2732 x 453 12.473 lbf .5 = 1.252 = 3.

0 – What are the appropriate nozzle sizes for the bit? 1) Calculate bit Hydraulic Horsepower: Hb = HSI x Dh2 1.0 x 12.Bit Hydraulics Example #2 • Drilling 12-1/4” hole with 10.2732 Hb = .2732 4.252 = 471 HP 1. Drilling Engineer ask for an HSI of 4. rock bit with 3 jets and 1 center jet.7 ppg WBM at 900 gpm.

7 x 900 2 12031 x 897 = 0.Bit Hydraulics Example #2 2) Calculate the bit Pressure Drop: Hb x 1714 Pb = Q 3) Calculate the bit TFA: xQ TFA = 12031 x Pb 2 = 471 x 1714 900 = 897 psi = 10.803 in2 .

1 x 16.Bit Hydraulics Example #2 4) Calculate the bit Pressure Drop: At = 4 x 32 2 x (N1 + N22 + …) 2 Answer: Trial and error with available nozzles One option: 2 x 15. 1 x 18 .

) • Dimensions of surface piping . etc. MWD.Calculating Pressure Losses • Mud properties – density – rheology • Dimensions of drill string (+ tool joints) and casing components • Flow rate and flow regime (laminar or turbulent) • Downhole equipment specifications – bit nozzle sizes and number – downhole tools (mud motors.

the standard rheological models (Newtonian. etc. Bingham Plastic.Pipe and Annulus Pressure Losses • Frictional pressure losses are calculated assuming: – axial pipe flow through drill pipe and collars – axial concentric flow through annulus (slot flow approximation) • If the flow is laminar.) can be used to calculate frictional pressure losses • If the flow is turbulent. Power Law. an empirical friction factor can be used to calculate frictional pressure losses .

Reynolds Number Flow of Newtonian fluids (oil-field units): Pipe Flow Re = 928 D v 379 Q = D 757 (D2-D1) v where: Annular Flow Re = = fluid density (ppg) v = average velocity (ft/sec) Q = flow rate (gal/min) D = pipe diameter (in) = fluid viscosity (cP) .

flow is transitional (usually assumed turbulent) Laminar Transitional Turbulent . flow is turbulent • For 2100 < Re < 4000. flow is laminar • For Re > 4000.Flow Regime for Newtonian Fluids • For Re < 2100.

Fanning Friction Factor Empirical method to account for turbulence and calculate friction pressure losses in pipe and annular flows with Newtonian fluids Includes: – surface roughness – laminar / turbulent flow Annulus: Laminar Around BHA: Transitional Drill Pipe: Turbulent Applicable to: – pipe flow: p/L = f v2 / 25.8 D – annular flow: p/L = f v2 / 21.1(D2-D1) .

2100 < Re < 4000). 4.e.e.000 < Re) • Flow around BHA is generally Transitional (i. but can considered Turbulent • Flow around Drill Pipe (annulus) is generally in Laminar Flow (i.e.Pipe and Annulus Pressure Losses • Flow through the Drill Pipe is generally in Turbulent Flow (i. Re < 2100) .

gal/min Cpb = coefficient through bore of pipe and tool joints . psi L = length of pipe or collars. P = 0. ppg Vf = viscosity correction factor.86 Where: P = pressure loss. (PV / )0.00001 x L x Cpb x x Vf x Q1.Pressure Loss Equation for DP • The pressure drop through a circular pipe can be calculated from the following general equation. centipose Q = flow rate. ft = mud weight.14 PV = plastic viscosity.

in . Cpb = 5.68 Dpb 4.86 + 0.86 Where: Ccb = coef.28 Dcb 4. through bore of tube and TJ Dpb = ID of tube. in Djb = ID of tool joint. through bore of collars Dcb = ID of collar. in • Coefficient for the Bore of the Collars Ccb = 7.Pressure Loss Equation for DP • The pressure calculation needs to take into account both the tube ID and tool joint ID.86 Where: Cpb = coef.41 Djb 4.

86 Where: P = pressure loss. P = 0. For the annulus of the pipe . gal/min Cpa = coef.00001 x L x Cpa x x Vf x Q1. psi L = length of pipe or collars.14 PV = plastic viscosity.Pressure Loss Equation for Annulus • The pressure drop in the annulus pipe can be calculated from the following general equation. centipose Q = flow rate. ft = mud weight. ppg Vf = viscosity correction factor. (PV / )0.

17 x B (Dh .5 .43 x B (Dh . Cpa = 8.Dj) x (Dh2 .Dp) x (Dh .Dp 2 2 )2 + 0.2 2.Pressure Loss Equation for Annulus • The pressure calculation needs to take into account both the tube OD and tool joint OD.6-3/4" 7-3/8" . in Hole Diameter B Parameter B = Parameter that takes into account geometry and friction in the annulus 4-3/4" and less 2. in Dp = OD of tube.3 2. in Dj = OD of the tool joint.Dj2)2 Where: Cpa = coef. For the annulus of the pipe Dh = hole diameter.7-3/4" 7-7/8" .0 5-7/8" .11" 12" and greater 2.4 2.

in .Pressure Loss Equation for Annulus • Coefficient for Annulus around Collars Cca = 8. for annulus of collar Dh = diameter of hole.6 x B (Dh .Dc) x (Dh2 . in Dc = OD of collar.Dc2)2 Where: Cca = coef.

Other Sources of Pressure Loss • Surface Equipment – Stand pipe – Hose – Top Drive / Kelly / Swivel • Motors / Turbine – Manufacture's data book – Operating parameters – Stalling • MWD / LWD – Manufacture's data book – Positive pulse / negative pulse – Pump noise .

Other Sources of Pressure Loss .

through the bit. and back to the surface Psurface piping SPP = + Pdrill pipe. tool joints + Pdownhole tools + Pbit + Pannulus .Mud Pump / Standpipe Pressures • Standpipe pressure (SPP) is the total pressure required to circulate the mud down the drill string. collars.

Frictional Pressure Loss Equations • Inaccuracies in frictional pressure loss calculations may result from neglecting: – – – – – – – – downhole temperatures downhole pressures cuttings tool joints drill string rotation hole washouts drill string eccentricity Mud type / properties Important to know what the fluid service company is including in your hydraulics analysis .

10. 160#. 21. 8”. PV = 25 cp DP: 10.7 ppg. 6-5/8” Regular connection Motor pressure drop: 300 psi LWD/MWD pressure drop: 300 psi Bit pressure drop: 500 psi Surface equipment pressure drop: 30 psi . 5-1/2”. 57#.000’.25” from 5500’ MD to 10780’ MD 13-3/8” 72# set at 5500’ MD Flowrate: 800 gpm Mud properties: MW .Hydraulics Example • Estimate the SPP for the following hole section: – – – – – – – – – – – Drilling 12. 5-1/2” HT55 connection HW: 600’. 5-1/2” FH connection DC: 90’. 5-1/2”.9#.

7 x 1.126 x 8001.00001 x 10000 x 0.00001 x L x Cpb x x Vf x Q1.Hydraulics Example 1) Calculate the pressure drop through the drill pipe: Cpb = Cpb = 5.41 5.86 P = 0.86 P = 1030 psi .41 Djb 4.003407 P = 0.003407 x 10.68 4.86 + 0.778 4.68 Dpb 4.86 = 0.875 4.86 + 3.86 0.

Hydraulics Example 2) Calculate the pressure drop through the heavy weight: Cpb = Cpb = 5.41 Djb 4.86 = 0.5 4.01631 P = 0.00001 x L x Cpb x x Vf x Q1.86 P = 0.126 x 8001.68 3.375 4.86 + 3.7 x 1.68 Dpb 4.00001 x 600 x 0.86 0.01631 x 10.86 P = 296 psi .41 5.86 + 0.

86 = 7.0 4.28 Dcb 4.25068 P = 0.Hydraulics Example 3) Calculate the pressure drop through the collars: Ccb = 7.7 x 1.86 P = 682 psi .00001 x 90 x 0.28 2.86 P = 0.25068 x 10.126 x 8001.86 = 0.00001 x L x Ccb x x Vf x Q1.

+ PDH tools + Pbit P = 30 + 2008 + 600 + 500 P = 3138 psi .Hydraulics Example 4) Calculate the total pressure drop through the drill string and surface equipment: P = Psurface piping + PDP. HW. DC.

5 (12.1252)2 P = 0.125) (12.17 x B (Dh .7 x 1.00001 x 5500 x 2.1968 x 10-4 x 10.5)(12.347 5.126 x 8001.7.7.3472 .43 x B (Dh .Hydraulics Example 5) Calculate the pressure drop around the drill pipe x 13-3/8” annulus: Cpa = 8.17 x 2.86 P = 36 psi .Dp 8.Dj) x (Dh2 .Dj2)2 + Cpa = 2.Dp) x (Dh .43 x 2.52)2 (12.1968 x 10-4 Cpa = 5.5 2 2 )2 + 0.3472 0.347 .

7.5 (12.5 + Cpa = 2.86 P = 32 psi .25 5.17 x 2.43 x 2.25 .52)2 0.125) (12.5)(12.252 .3206 x 10-4 x 10.1252)2 P = 0.7.3207 x 10-4 (12.Hydraulics Example 6) Calculate the pressure drop around the drill pipe x 12-1/4” annulus: Cpa = 8.126 x 8001.252 5.00001 x 4500 x 2.7 x 1.

7.25 .7.7 x 1.25 5.17 x 2.3206 x 10-4 x 10.3084 x 10-4 P = 0.52)2 + 0.02)2 Cpa = 2.5 (12.0) (12.252 5.00001 x 600 x 2.Hydraulics Example 7) Calculate the pressure drop around the heavy weight x 12-1/4” annulus: Cpa = 8.43 x 2.5)(12.86 P = 4 psi .126 x 8001.252 .5 (12.

2357 x 10-4 P = 0.6 x B (Dh .252 .Hydraulics Example 8) Calculate the pressure drop around the collars x 12-1/4” annulus: Cca = 8.8) x (12.5 .126 x 8001.00001 x 90 x 8.7 x 1.2357 x 10-4 x 10.6 x 2.86 P = 2 psi .Dc) x (Dh .82)2 Cpa = 8.5 (12.Dc 2 2)2 = 8.

052 TVD 74 0.Hydraulics Example 9) Calculate the total pressure drop in the annulus and the ECD: P = PDP x 13-3/8” csg + PDP x OH + PHW x OH + PDC x OH P = 36 + 32 + 4 + 2 = 74 psi Pannulus ECD = MW + 0.052 10800 = 10.8 ppg ECD = 10.7 + .

+ PDH tools + Pbit + Pannulus SSP = 30 + 2008 + 600 + 500 + 74 = 3212 psi . Equip + PDP.Hydraulics Example 10) Calculate the SPP: SSP = Psurf. HW. DC.

what are the options? • What are typical temperature and pressure effects in deepwater? • What are typical drill string rotation effects? • What are typical cuttings effects? . what are the options? • If ECD is design limitation.Hydraulics Related Design Issues • How large are typical ECDs and SPPs? • If SPP is design limitation.

Where Do Most Frictional Pressure Losses Occur? SA2 1/2" 22295' MD SA2 8 12 1/4" 21500' MD439 962gpm gpmDeltaP Delta P SA2 8 1/2" 22295' MD 439 gpm DeltaP Annulus Annulus Bit Bit Tools Tools Drill String Drill String Annul Bit Tools Drill S Typical 12-1/4” Hole Typical 8-1/2” Hole .

Options for SPP Limitations • Reduce pressure drop in drill string – larger size drill pipe – tapered drill string – lower PV • Reduce pressure drop in tools – motor – MWD tools All highly dependent on flow rate and mud rheology (hole cleaning requirements) • Reduce pressure drop across bit • Increase SPP limit Typical Class 1 Rig Maximum SPP Limit Working SPP Limit 5000 psi 4000-4500 psi Typical Class 2 Rig 7000 psi 5600-6300 psi .

Options for ECD Limitations • Reduce pressure drop in annulus – – – – smaller size drill pipe. high torque tool joints larger casing / hole size lower flow rate and mud rheology (YP) must consider hole cleaning requirements • Decrease mud weight – must consider wellbore stability requirements .

tight liners • Low-clearance casing designs • Slim hole well designs • Large hole sections with small drill pipe .Situations Where Hydraulics is Often a Concern • Long MD wells • Narrow margin between pore pressure and fracture gradient (deepwater) • Long.

Surge and Swab

Pipe movement causes flow in annulus and results in increase or decrease in wellbore pressure

downward movement pressure increase - surge

upward movement pressure decrease- swab

**Significance of Surge and Swab
**

• Can cause lost returns and well control problems • Swab can induce wellbore instability -particularly below BHA pack-offs

**• Determine maximum speeds for running casing / liners and reciprocating during cementing
**

• Determine maximum speeds for running pipe

**• Surge and swab depend on:
**

– wellbore ID, pipe OD / ID – well depth, profile, & temperature – cuttings in flow stream and beds – mud properties – pipe running speed – open area of pipe end

Breaking Circulation

• If circulation has not been broken > 1 hr, rotate pipe (10-20 rpm) before starting pumps • Start pumps at as low a rate as possible and build up to drilling flow rate - monitor PWD if available • After breaking circulation, bring pumps up to the drilling rate for a short period - 5 min • Do not run down and break circulation at the same time

Using PWD Data While Drilling • Monitor pressure and ECD while drilling • Monitor cuttings beds formation and determine when to circulate (with torque and drag/ECD) • Monitor pressure while circulating (vs time) to determine when equilibrium is achieved • Warning system during backreaming operations (requires increased sample rate ~15 sec) .

breaking circulation.) to improve future well planning • Validate hydraulics programs used for well planning .Using PWD Data After Drilling • Relate ECDs to different well conditions (rotating. etc. tripping. sliding.

How to Collect PWD Data • Set up systems that allow easy monitoring • Effectively communicate information to the driller in a timely manner • Increase sampling rate if data are used for backreaming operations • Collect depth-based data on a compressed scale to easily identify trends while drilling • Collect time-based data to relate to actual well conditions after drilling .

many tradeoffs must be considered between hydraulics (ECD and SPP).Lesson Summary • Wellbore hydraulics requires knowledge of frictional pressure losses during circulating and tripping operations for the complete circulating system • Wellbore hydraulics may be highly dependent on downhole conditions • When designing a drilling program. hole cleaning. and wellbore stability • PWD data may supply valuable information related to hydraulics and hole cleaning while drilling and for future well planning .

• Check nozzle sizes in bits when they are delivered and make sure extras are on the rig (2 size larger and smaller than required). . • Learn the pipe layout on the rig. • Ensure standpipe manifold is in good condition and make sure all gauges / valves are working.What Can You Do! • Ensure pumps and operating parts are in good condition (liners free from corrosion. pistons in good shape) and being given proper maintenance. • Does the rig contractor have adequate spare parts and sufficient inventory of liner sizes and pistons. • Perform efficiency test on pumps when possible.

.What Can You Do! • Are the circulating / hydraulic parameters listed in the drilling program. • Double check the engineers hydraulic calculations. • Calibrate the estimated system pressure loss with the actual pump pressure and report if there is a large variance. use data to determine surge / swab. • If a PWD is ran in the string. and equivalent static bottom hole density. ECD deference's between circulating and rotating.

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