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INTRODUCTION TO OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

D.DHANASEKAR M.E.,Mem.A.S.M.E., Design Engineer - mechanical

Topics covered

World scenario Terminologies Types of Offshore structures Major Failures an historical perspective Types of major loads Environmental loads Types of welded connections Types of Stresses Concept of Stress state Theories of Static failure Stress Concentration

World scenario

Crude oil is sold between countries in quantities called barrels


One barrel of oil is the same as 159 litres or 35 gallons (enough to fit in the petrol tanks of about 4 cars) 280 pints (a lot of bottles of milk) There are about 8 barrels in a tonne. You could fit nearly 2 million barrels of oil into a football stadium - or one and a half tankers.

Crude oil is often mixed with gases, water and sand. It forms an emulsion with the water

World scenario

World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day Contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to the world energy consumption was 9% and is estimated to be 35% in 2010 Investment costs per Barrel per day $/B/D Production costs per Barrel$/B

Condition

Conventional
Average
Middle East Non-Opec

4000 - 8000
500 - 3000 3000 - 12000

5
1 8

Offshore
North Sea Deepwater 10000 - 25000 15000 - 35000 5 - 10 10 - 15

World scenario

The economic feasibility of an offshore project depends on many aspects: capital expenditure (CAPEX), tax, royalties, operational expenditure (OPEX) In a typical offshore field development, one third of the CAPEX is spent on the platform, one third on the drilling of wells and one third on the pipelines

Cost estimates are usually prepared in a deterministic approach. The major elements in the CAPEX for an offshore platform are: project management and design material and equipment procurement fabrication transport and installation hook-up and commissioning.

World scenario

Operational Expenditure (OPEX)

In a typical Offshore system, approximately 20 percent of OPEX are required for offshore inspection, maintenance and repair (IMR). The amount to be spent on IMR over the project life can add up to approximately half the original investment. IMR is the area in which the structural engineer makes a contribution by effort in design, selection of material, improved corrosion protection, accessibility, basic provisions for scaffolding, avoiding jacket attachments dangerous to divers, etc.

World scenario

DEEP WATER DEVELOPMENTS


Deep water introduces a wide range of extra difficulties for the operator, the designer and constructor of offshore platforms. Fixed platforms have recently been installed in water of 410 m. depth, i.e. "Bullwinkle" developed by Shell Oil for a Gulf of Mexico location. The jacket weighed nearly 500 MN. Subsea wells are now feasible for 300 - 900 m deep water. The deepest wells have been developed off Brasil in moderate weather conditions. The tension leg platform (TLP) seems to be the most promising deepwater production. It consists of a semi-submersible pontoon, tied to the seabed by vertical pre-stressed tethers. The first TLP was Hutton in the North Sea and recently TLP-Jolliet was installed at a 530 m deep location in the Gulf of Mexico. Norwegian Snorre and Heidrun fields have been developed with TLPs as well.

Terminologies
Terminology G.B.S. Description Gravity based structure, sitting flatly on the sea bottom, stable through its weight. Tubular sub-structure under a topside, standing in the water and pile founded. The operation of bringing the object (module, jacket, deck) from the quay onto the transportation barge. Vertical pipes from topside down to 5-10 m below water level for intake or discharge.

JACKET

LOAD-OUT

CAISSONS or SUMPS

TOPSIDE or Compact offshore process plant, with all SUPERSTRUCTURE auxiliaries, positioned above the waves

Terminologies

Terminology
SLINGS

Description
Cables with spliced eyed at both ends, for offshore lifting, the upper end resting in the crane hook. Tubular frame, used in lifting operation Thick-walled tubular stubs, directly receiving slings and transversely welded to the main structure. Thick-walled plate with hole, receiving the pin of the shackle, welded to the main structure. The piping section which rises from the sea bed to topside level.

SPREADER

PADEARS (TRUNNIONS)

PADEYES

PIPELINE RISER

Terminologies

Terminology
SUBSEA TEMPLATE

Description
Structure at sea-bottom, to guide conductors prior to jacket installation. Bringing the jacket in vertical position, prior to set down on the sea bottom. Area in topside where the wellheads are positioned including the valves mounted on its top. Connecting components or systems, after installation offshore. The structure to keep the object rigidly connected to the barge during transport.

UP ENDING

WELLHEAD AREA

HOOK-UP

SEA-FASTENING

Off shore systems


Oil can be transported by either pipelines or tankers. Under sea pipelines are made of steel that is welded together and then sealed to prevent corrosion. The pipeline is installed by being lowered into a trench on the sea floor after either being uncoiled off a reel ship, towed behind a boat from the shore or being constructed on a barge. On off shore barges there are several work stations. The pipeline is constructed in stages at each ,of these work stations. The pieces of pipe are welded together, x-rayed to look for gaps, corrosion proofed and cleaned before being lowered into the ocean. Tankers are also used to deliver these minerals when they are being exported to other countries.

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms

Fixed Platforms

Jacket type Platform

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms

Fixed Platforms

Gravity Base Platform

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms

Fixed Platforms

Gravity Base Platform

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms

Tension Leg Platform

Mars tension leg platform, on location in Mississippi Canyon block 807 in 2940ft of water

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms

Tension Leg Platform


Tension Leg Platform (TLP) is a buoyant platform held in place by a mooring system.

Mooring system is a set of tension legs or tendons attached to the platform and connected to a template or foundation on the seafloor.

Template held in place by piles driven into seafloor. This method dampens the vertical motions of the platform, but allows for horizontal movements. Topside facilities (processing facilities, pipelines, and surface trees) of the TLP are same as for a conventional platform

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms

Floating Platform

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms A fixed platform may be described as consisting of two main components, the substructure and the superstructure.
Superstructure: also referred as the 'topsides' supported on a deck, which is fixed (mounted) on the jacket structure. These consist of a series of modules which house drilling equipment, production equipment including gas turbine, generating sets, pumps, compressors, a gas flare stack, revolving cranes, survival craft, helicopter pad and living quarters with hotel and catering facilities. It can weigh up to 40,000 tonnes.

Substructure: is either a steel tubular jacket or a prestressed concrete structure. Most fixed offshore oil and gas production platforms have a steel jacket although a small number of platforms have a concrete foundation. Each platform is uniquely designed for the particular reservoir condition, location, water depth, soil characteristics, wind, wave and marine current conditions. Fixed steel and concrete platforms can be built in water depth from a few meters to more than 300 m.

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms


Fixed platform:
This platform design tackles the challenges of offshore drilling in the most straightforward and industrial way imaginable. A gigantic tower of concrete and steel is constructed and oil rig is mounted on top.

Operates at depths of 1,500 feet (457 meters) or less


These platforms are extremely stable, despite the fact that the concrete base isn't even attached to the seafloor. It simply stays in place due to all the weight above it. However, at depths greater than 1,500 feet, the design begins to become more impractical due to material costs.

A fixed platform (FP) is supported by piles driven into the seabed and is economically feasible for water depths up to 1,500 feet.

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms


Compliant tower:

These rigs take the basic idea of the fixed platform and make it viable to operate in depths of 1,500 feet to 3,500 feet (457 meters to 914 meters). The design achieves this by relying on a narrower tower of steel and concrete. But while fixed platform designs are rigid, compliant towers are designed to sway and move with the stresses of wind and sea -even hurricanes. In this respect, they're much like modern skyscrapers that are built to sway with the wind.

The compliant tower (CT) is a narrow, flexible tower that can operate in water depths of up to 3,000 feet. The Sea Star or floating mini tension leg structure is suitable for smaller reservoirs and operates in water depths up to 3,500 feet.

Types of Off shore Oil Platforms


Sea Star platform: The Sea Star platform is basically a larger version of the semisubmersible design Production facilities sit atop a large submersible hull on a tower. When the lower hull fills with water, it sinks to a lower depth, providing stability while keeping the facilities high and dry. However, instead of giant anchors holding it in place, the Sea Star is connected to the ocean floor by tension legs.
These long, hollow tubes remain rigid at all times, preventing any up-anddown motion on the platform. The legs are just flexible enough to allow side-to-side motion, which helps absorb the stress of waves and wind. These platforms operate from depths of 500 to 3,500 feet (152 to 1,067 meters) and are typically used to tap smaller reservoirs in deep waters.