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D.DHANASEKAR M.E.,Mem.A.S.M.E., Design Engineer - mechanical
World scenario Terminologies Types of Offshore structures Major Failures – an historical perspective Types of major loads Environmental loads Types of welded connections Types of Stresses Concept of Stress state Theories of Static failure Stress Concentration
Crude oil is often mixed with gases. water and sand. It forms an emulsion with the water .World scenario Crude oil is sold between countries in quantities called barrels One barrel of oil is the same as 159 litres or 35 gallons (enough to fit in the petrol tanks of about 4 cars) 280 pints (a lot of bottles of milk) There are about 8 barrels in a tonne. You could fit nearly 2 million barrels of oil into a football stadium .or one and a half tankers.
12000 5 1 8 Offshore North Sea Deepwater 10000 .10 10 .25000 15000 .8000 500 .15 .35000 5 .3000 3000 .World scenario World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day Contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to the world energy consumption was 9% and is estimated to be 35% in 2010 Investment costs per Barrel per day $/B/D Production costs per Barrel$/B Condition Conventional Average Middle East Non-Opec 4000 .
World scenario The economic feasibility of an offshore project depends on many aspects: capital expenditure (CAPEX). one third of the CAPEX is spent on the platform. . one third on the drilling of wells and one third on the pipelines Cost estimates are usually prepared in a deterministic approach. royalties. The major elements in the CAPEX for an offshore platform are: project management and design material and equipment procurement fabrication transport and installation hook-up and commissioning. operational expenditure (OPEX) In a typical offshore field development. tax.
IMR is the area in which the structural engineer makes a contribution by effort in design. . basic provisions for scaffolding. The amount to be spent on IMR over the project life can add up to approximately half the original investment. etc. approximately 20 percent of OPEX are required for offshore inspection.World scenario Operational Expenditure (OPEX) In a typical Offshore system. accessibility. avoiding jacket attachments dangerous to divers. selection of material. maintenance and repair (IMR). improved corrosion protection.
i. depth. . It consists of a semi-submersible pontoon. the designer and constructor of offshore platforms. The first TLP was Hutton in the North Sea and recently TLP-Jolliet was installed at a 530 m deep location in the Gulf of Mexico. The tension leg platform (TLP) seems to be the most promising deepwater production. "Bullwinkle" developed by Shell Oil for a Gulf of Mexico location. Subsea wells are now feasible for 300 . tied to the seabed by vertical pre-stressed tethers. Norwegian Snorre and Heidrun fields have been developed with TLPs as well. The deepest wells have been developed off Brasil in moderate weather conditions. The jacket weighed nearly 500 MN.World scenario DEEP WATER DEVELOPMENTS Deep water introduces a wide range of extra difficulties for the operator. Fixed platforms have recently been installed in water of 410 m.e.900 m deep water.
B. stable through its weight. JACKET LOAD-OUT CAISSONS or SUMPS TOPSIDE or Compact offshore process plant. Description Gravity based structure. with all SUPERSTRUCTURE auxiliaries. deck) from the quay onto the transportation barge. The operation of bringing the object (module. Tubular sub-structure under a topside. jacket. sitting flatly on the sea bottom.S. Vertical pipes from topside down to 5-10 m below water level for intake or discharge.Terminologies Terminology G. standing in the water and pile founded. positioned above the waves .
for offshore lifting. the upper end resting in the crane hook. Tubular frame. welded to the main structure.Terminologies Terminology SLINGS Description Cables with spliced eyed at both ends. Thick-walled plate with hole. used in lifting operation Thick-walled tubular stubs. directly receiving slings and transversely welded to the main structure. The piping section which rises from the sea bed to topside level. SPREADER PADEARS (TRUNNIONS) PADEYES PIPELINE RISER . receiving the pin of the shackle.
after installation offshore. Connecting components or systems. The structure to keep the object rigidly connected to the barge during transport. prior to set down on the sea bottom. Area in topside where the wellheads are positioned including the valves mounted on its top. Bringing the jacket in vertical position. UP ENDING WELLHEAD AREA HOOK-UP SEA-FASTENING .Terminologies Terminology SUBSEA TEMPLATE Description Structure at sea-bottom. to guide conductors prior to jacket installation.
Tankers are also used to deliver these minerals when they are being exported to other countries. . Under sea pipelines are made of steel that is welded together and then sealed to prevent corrosion. On off shore barges there are several work stations. The pipeline is installed by being lowered into a trench on the sea floor after either being uncoiled off a reel ship.of these work stations. The pieces of pipe are welded together. towed behind a boat from the shore or being constructed on a barge.Off shore systems Oil can be transported by either pipelines or tankers. The pipeline is constructed in stages at each . corrosion proofed and cleaned before being lowered into the ocean. x-rayed to look for gaps.
Types of Off shore Oil Platforms .
Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Fixed Platforms Jacket type Platform .
Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Fixed Platforms Gravity Base Platform .
Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Fixed Platforms Gravity Base Platform .
Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Tension Leg Platform Mars tension leg platform. on location in Mississippi Canyon block 807 in 2940ft of water .
Template held in place by piles driven into seafloor. Mooring system is a set of tension legs or tendons attached to the platform and connected to a template or foundation on the seafloor. pipelines. This method dampens the vertical motions of the platform. but allows for horizontal movements.Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Tension Leg Platform Tension Leg Platform (TLP) is a buoyant platform held in place by a mooring system. Topside facilities (processing facilities. and surface trees) of the TLP are same as for a conventional platform .
Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Floating Platform .
wind. compressors. production equipment including gas turbine. Substructure: is either a steel tubular jacket or a prestressed concrete structure. These consist of a series of modules which house drilling equipment. a gas flare stack. water depth. Fixed steel and concrete platforms can be built in water depth from a few meters to more than 300 m.000 tonnes. which is fixed (mounted) on the jacket structure. It can weigh up to 40. soil characteristics.Types of Off shore Oil Platforms A fixed platform may be described as consisting of two main components. Most fixed offshore oil and gas production platforms have a steel jacket although a small number of platforms have a concrete foundation. location. generating sets. revolving cranes. wave and marine current conditions. the substructure and the superstructure. Each platform is uniquely designed for the particular reservoir condition. helicopter pad and living quarters with hotel and catering facilities. Superstructure: also referred as the 'topsides' supported on a deck. survival craft. . pumps.
Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Fixed platform: This platform design tackles the challenges of offshore drilling in the most straightforward and industrial way imaginable.500 feet. Operates at depths of 1. It simply stays in place due to all the weight above it.500 feet (457 meters) or less These platforms are extremely stable. at depths greater than 1. . A gigantic tower of concrete and steel is constructed and oil rig is mounted on top. However.500 feet. the design begins to become more impractical due to material costs. A fixed platform (FP) is supported by piles driven into the seabed and is economically feasible for water depths up to 1. despite the fact that the concrete base isn't even attached to the seafloor.
But while fixed platform designs are rigid.Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Compliant tower: These rigs take the basic idea of the fixed platform and make it viable to operate in depths of 1.500 feet to 3. . The design achieves this by relying on a narrower tower of steel and concrete.500 feet. flexible tower that can operate in water depths of up to 3. The Sea Star or floating “mini tension leg” structure is suitable for smaller reservoirs and operates in water depths up to 3. they're much like modern skyscrapers that are built to sway with the wind. The compliant tower (CT) is a narrow. compliant towers are designed to sway and move with the stresses of wind and sea -even hurricanes. In this respect.000 feet.500 feet (457 meters to 914 meters).
instead of giant anchors holding it in place. the Sea Star is connected to the ocean floor by tension legs.500 feet (152 to 1. . However. it sinks to a lower depth. hollow tubes remain rigid at all times. When the lower hull fills with water. The legs are just flexible enough to allow side-to-side motion. These long. which helps absorb the stress of waves and wind. preventing any up-anddown motion on the platform. These platforms operate from depths of 500 to 3. providing stability while keeping the facilities high and dry.067 meters) and are typically used to tap smaller reservoirs in deep waters.Types of Off shore Oil Platforms Sea Star platform: The Sea Star platform is basically a larger version of the semisubmersible design Production facilities sit atop a large submersible hull on a tower.