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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Definition
The Labour Dictionary defines Industrial

relations as the relations between employers and employees in industry.


According to Dale Yoder, Industrial relations

describes relationships between managements and employees or among employees and their organisations, that characterise or grow out of employment.

Characteristics of IR
Industrial Relations are outcome of employment relationship in an industrial enterprise. Industrial relations develop the skills and methods of adjusting to and cooperating with each other. IR system creates complex rules and regulations

to maintain harmonious relations. The Govt. involves to shape the industrial relations through laws, rules, agreements , etc. The important factors of IR are: employees and their organisations, employer and their associations and Govt.

Characteristics of IR
Industrial Relations are outcome of employment relationship in an industrial enterprise. Industrial relations develop the skills and methods of adjusting to and cooperating with each other. IR system creates complex rules and regulations

to maintain harmonious relations. The Govt. involves to shape the industrial relations through laws, rules, agreements , etc. The important factors of IR are: employees and their organisations, employer and their associations and Govt.

The main aspects of IR are:


Promotion and development of healthy

labour-management relations; Maintenance of Industrial peace and avoidance of Industrial strife; and Development of Industrial democracy.

Factors affecting IR(MG)


Institutional factors Economic factors Social factors Technological factors Psychological factors Political Factors Global factors

Enterprise related factors

Two Dominant Aspects of IR


Cooperation Conflict

Parties to IR
Workers and their organisations Employers and their Organisations Government

Objectives of IR
To check industrial conflicts and minimise the

occurrence of strikes,lockouts and gheroas. To minimise labour turnover and absenteeism by providing job satisfaction to the workers. To establish and develop industrial democracy based on workers parternship in management of industry To facilitate government control over industries in regulating production and industrial relations.

Concept

A Trade Union is a continuous association of workers which is formed with the purpose of protecting the interest of workers.

Origin
Separation between capital & Labour Philosophy of Laissez- Faire

Lack of bargaining power on the part of workers


Individual dispensability but collective indispensability

Definitions
To quote Webb and Webb, A trade union is
continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their working lives.

According to Flippo, A labour union or trade union is


an organisation of workers formed to protect, promote and improve, through collective action, the social, the economic and political interests of its members.

Features of Trade Unions


From the above definitions the following features of trade union emerge:
It is an organisation formed by employees or workers. It is formed on a continuous basis i.e. it is a permanent

body. It is formed to protect all kinds of interests of its members, dominantly economic interest. It achieves its objectives through collective action and group efforts.

Objectives of Trade Union


Steady employment.

Rationalisation of personnel policies.


Voice in decisions affecting workers. Recognition and participation.

Gaining legislative enactments.


Miscellaneous services.

Functions of Trade Unions


Collective bargaining with the management to settle

terms and conditions of employment. Advise the management on personnel policies and practices. Taking of the individual and collective grievances of workers with the management. Organising demonstration, strikes etc. to press the demands of the workers. Education of workers and their children. Welfare and recreational activities for its members. Representing workers in various national and international forums. Securing lagislative protection for the workers from the govt.

Functions of Trade Unions


Three Categories
Militant or Intra-Mural functions Fraternal or Extra Mural functions Political functions

Why Do Workers Join Unions


Economic benefits. Platform for self expression. Check on arbitrary actions of management. Security. Employer-employee relations. Sense of participation. Sense of belongingness.

Importance of Trade Unions


Inculcate discipline among the workforce.

Enables settlement of industrial disputes in a rational

rather than erratic and chaotic manner. Helps in social adjustments. Creates a committed industrial workforce.

Structure of Trade unions


Due to divergent interests and objectives a variety of

structural types of unions has emerged.


Craft Unions: An organisation of wage-earners engaged in a single

occupation or craft. Industrial Unions General Unions

Trade Union Federations: like in India


AITUC INTUC BMS HMS

Registration of Trade Union


The Trade unions Act, 1926 legalises the formation of trade

unions by allowing employees the right to form and organise unions. It provides that any seven persons can form a union and apply for registration. It provides for the registration of trade unions with the Registrar of the trade unions. It provides that every registered trade union shall be a body corporate and shall have perpetual succession and a common seal.

It lays down:
The right and liabilities of registered trade unions Objects on which general funds of trade unions may be

spent.

Application for Registration


Every application for registration of Trade union shall be made to the Registrar and shall be accompanied by copy of the rules of the Trade Union and the following : (1) The names, occupation and address of the members (2) The name of the trade Union and the address of its head office (3) Details about the office bearers.

Provisions to be contained in the rules of Trade Unions


The objects for which the TU has been established

The purposes for which the general funds of the TU shall

be applicable. The payment of a subscription by members of the TU which shall not be less than 25p per month per member. The manner in which the members of the executive and the office bearers of the TU shall be appointed & removed. The manner in which the TU may be dissolved.

Rights and privileges of a registered TU:


It is a body corporate

It can keep separate fund for political purposes.


It enjoys immunity from criminal conspiracy It enjoys immunity from civil suits. An agreement between the members of a registered

trade union not to accept employment is valid . It has a right to amalgamate to form a larger union or federation of unions. Members of the union have a right to inspect its books Any person who has attained the age of 15 years can become a member of the union.

TU Recognition
TU recognition serves as an effective solution both from

resolving inter-union conflicts and ensuring collective agreements.

Trade union Recogniton


By Government on the basis of membership verification To determine which unions should participate in national & international level consultations on social and labour matters.

By ManagementTo identify collective bargaining agents.

Methods :
Membership Verification Unions with a min membership of 5,00,000 across at least four

sectors/ industries and four states are accorded recognition as National trade union centres

Check-off Secret Ballot:


Panel: vote for individuals belonging to one or

more individuals. Banner

Code of Discipline

Problems

Uneven Growth
Low Membership
Outside Leadership Multiplicity of Unions Inter-Union Rivalry

(in nutshell)

Absence of Paid Office-bearers Weak financial Position Subscription Dues Unpaid Lack of Interest Limited Stress on Welfare Lack of Public Support