Examples of Human Rights in Historical Documents

• Babylonian Code of Hammurabi • British Magna Carta • French Declaration of the Rights of Man • U.S. Bill of Rights

and freedom from want and fear as essential for all people. and new weapons intensify war and increasingly affect civilian populations. . and homosexuals). The United States drops the first atomic bomb on Japan. Jehovah’s Witnesses. gypsies. • Following the Great Depression. • The League of Nations is created in response to an emerging international sense of morality. • WWII: Nazis exterminate millions of people (incl. poison gas. people with disabilities. communists. Franklin D. His “Four Freedoms” (1941) identify freedom of speech and religion. Roosevelt’s “New Deal” (1933) guarantees social and economic benefits for workers. The Japanese military brutalizes residents of occupied countries. Jews. • Nazi and Japanese war criminals are prosecuted in the first-ever war trials: the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals.Events Preceding UDHR • WWI: Trench warfare. • The United Nations is established in 1945.

CREATION OF UDHR 1946: Commission of Human Rights formed 1947: Drafting of declaration begins 1948: Lengthy and often divisive deliberations 12-10-1948: UN General Assembly adopts UDHR .

Saudi Arabia. South Africa) 2 absent (Honduras. Cuba. Ukraine. Brazil. Poland. France. USSR. India. 8 abstained (Belarus. China. Czechoslovakia. Iran. Yemen) . Yugoslavia. USA).The General Assembly Vote 48 in favor (incl. Ethiopia.

Ukraine. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Poland. Yugoslavia Saudi Arabia Opposed interference with sovereignty of nations Some articles contradict Q’ran (Koran): freedom to change religion and certain gender and marriage rights South Africa Right to racial equality interfered with apartheid . Czechoslovakia.UN Member States Abstentions and Points of Contention Belarus.

Eleanor Roosevelt • Delegate to UN General Assembly 1945-1952 • Chairperson of Human Rights Commission .

UDHR Articles: Examples Article 5: Freedom from Torture Article 25: Right to Health Care .

and Cultural Rights .International Bill of Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights International Covenant of Economic. Social.

UK e. and USA . Liberia.International Covenant on Economic.g. Kazakhstan. Sao Tome and Principe. Germany. Oman. India.. Mexico. Qatar. Saudi Arabia 100 50 0 2005 ratified not signed signed but not ratified 7 countries: Belize. Botswana. Mozambique. Canada. Cuba. Social. France. Myanmar.g. Pakistan. Japan. China. South Africa. Lao. and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 150 e..

and fredoms . “ http://www. shall strive by teaching and educate to promote respect for these rights. .org . .uhdr.UDHR Preamble “Every indivual . . .