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LIGHT WEIGHT FOAMED OR AERATED CONCRETE

WHAT IS LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE?


Lightweight foamed concrete is a kind of lightweight

concrete, which is lighter than normal concrete by mixing foams into cement slurry. Lightweight concrete can easily produced utilizing natural lightweight aggregate as well waste material. Lightweight concrete has its obvious advantage of high strength/weight ratio, good tensile strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion, waste utilization.

OBJECTIVE
Determine the compressive strength of foam concrete

under different percentage of quarry dust.


Determine the flexural strength of foam concrete

under different percentage of quarry dust.

TYPES OF LWC

No-fines concrete Lightweight aggregate concrete Aerated/Foamed concrete

NO-FINES CONCRETE
No-fines concrete can be defined as a lightweight

concrete composed of cement and fine aggregate. Uniformly distributed voids are formed throughout its mass. No-fines concrete usually used for both load bearing and non-load bearing for external walls and partitions.

LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE


The lightweight aggregate is its high porosity which

results in a low specific gravity. It can be natural aggregate such as pumice, scoria and all of those of volcanic origin and the artificial aggregate such as expanded blast-furnace slag.

AERATED CONCRETE
Aerated concrete is made by introducing air or other

gas into a cement slurry and fine sand. It is used in precast concrete factories in order to produce concrete with a reasonable high strength and low drying shrinkage.

APPLICATION
This material is used in concrete blocks and panels for outer leaves of buildings as well as partition walls, concrete slabs for roofing and floor screeds.
It is widely used as loose-fill insulation in masonry construction where it enhances fire ratings, reduces noise transmission, does not rot and termite resistant.

It is also used for vessels, roof decks and other applications.

PROPERTIES
STRENGTH
(a) compressive strength

tensile strength (c) shear strength


(b)

WATER ABSORPTION SHRINKAGE EXPANSION FIRE RESISTANCE

PRODUCTION
MIX PROPORTIONS
CEMENT +FOAMING AGENT While the cement mixer or premix concrete truck is in motion, the water and cement are introduced and allowed to mix until a thoroughly consistent mixture is achieved. When this has taken place, the required amount of foam can be injected into the mixer and the mixing continued until the foam is completely enveloped into the total mix. The mixture is then ready for discharging into the moulds or wherever it is to be placed.

CEMENT + LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE + FOAM


The lightweight matrix formed by the mixture of

cement, water and foam, lightweight aggregates can be used without the tendency to float when the mix is vibrated. Aggregates which are used are:- expanded shale or clay, scoria, pumice, vermiculite or fly ash. It is often increasing the overall density for a given strength, since simply a higher foam content can achieve better results.

WATER : CEMENT RATIO


The amount of water to be added to the mix depends

upon the moisture content of the sand, 40-45 litres of water is used for every 100 kilograms of cement. When the amount of foam is increased, as for lighter densities, the amount of water can therefore be decreased. The water : cement ratio should be kept as low as possible in order to avoid unnecessary shrinkage in the moulds.

BATCHING OF MATERIALS

Appropriate quantities of sand & cement are batched,

and an amount of water required for the mix to be flowable is added. Materials are mixed thoroughly in a mixing plant fitted with foam-generating plant and pumping units. Water to be added is adjusted for moisture content of sand. The foam is injected into mix rather than added on to mix.

MIXING AND TRANSPORTATION


Ready mix concrete agitator is used for mixing.
All the raw materials are metered into the agitator and

with the agitator turning at a high speed, a predetermined batched volume of foam is introduced into the agitator. Batching of both of the raw materials and foam are done at the ready mixed concrete batching plant, it will be possible trip to transport at the site.

PLACING
Properly designed foam concrete has a stable burble

structure and can be pumped to normal heights without loss of entrained air. A squeeze-type pump is referred over a screw-feed pump. Foam concrete produced and delivered at the site can be pumped up to height of 60 m and placed like SCC.

CURING
Air Curing
This is probably the easiest and most popular method

of curing. It is a slow, but acceptable system which enables a turn around of moulds every 24 hours on average, depending on the ambient temperature.

STEAM CURING
When precast Aerated Concrete panels and slabs are

made under factory conditions in order to induce an early strength into the concrete by applying heat from steam to the underside of the moulds. Steam curing is not begun until at least five hours after casting, and even then the increase in temperature is well controlled and should not exceed 70C (167F). The extent of steam curing depends upon the climate .

ADVANTAGES
Rapid and relatively simple construction.
Economical in terms of transportation as well as

reduction in manpower. Significant reduction of overall weight results in saving structural frames, footing or piles. Most of lightweight concrete have better nailing and sawing properties than heavier and stronger conventional concrete.

DISADVANTAGES
Very sensitive with water content in the mixtures.
Difficult to place and finish because of the porosity

and angularity of the aggregate. Mixing time is longer than conventional concrete to assure proper mixing. Compressive and flexural strengths of foamed concrete reduce with its density.

CONCLUSION
Lightweight concrete can be utilized as a normal concrete

replacement structure shield. Aerated Concrete and Lightweight Aggregate Concrete also can be use as energy absorbent. Lightweight aggregate concrete, it depends on the materials used. Lightweight concrete can develop to be high strength concrete and good absorbability of impact energy. It has a lower modulus of elasticity and higher tensile strain capacity further provides better impact resistance than normal weight concrete.

CONCLUSION cont.
In recommendation, more research is required if the

capabilities of the material are to be exploited and utilization the reinforcement for enhance the tensile strain capacity of concrete. Foamed lightweight concrete is not suitable to be used as non-load bearing wall as the compressive strength is 27% less than recommended.

QUIESTION

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