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Minor project presented by:

Padira Keerthi Pratheek Reddy Varnita Rana

Kratika Mittal
Piyush Kumar Singh

INTRODUCTION

SATELLITE- a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. SATELLITE SYSTEMMechanical Structure Propulsion Thermal control Power supply Tracking, Telemetry and command Attitude and Orbit control Payload Communication system

Satellite Anatomy

The mechanical structure weighs between 7 and 10% of the total mass of the satellite at launch. It performs three main functions namely: 1. It links the satellite to the launcher and thus acts as an interface between the two. 2. It acts as a support for all electronic equipments carried by the satellite. 3. It serves as a protective screen against energetic radiation, dust and micrometeorites in space.

Cost

of launching satellite Material Light weight The material used to cover the outside of a satellite should also be resistant to puncture by these fast travelling particles

Propulsion System of a Satellite


A propulsion system is used to move the satellite in space. The propulsion system consists of a large rocket motor that is used to move the satellite into the desired location. These motors are powered by electric or chemical fuel. Thrusters are needed because various natural forces cause satellites in orbit to drift out of position. These forces include the pressure of the solar wind, the effects of the Earth's and moon's gravity, and variations in the Earth's magnetic field.

Types of Propulsion
Solid fuel propulsion Monopropellant Bipropellant Electric and ion propulsion Arc Jet PPT Hall Thruster Ion Propulsion Liquid fuel propulsion Cryogenic Hypergolic

Solid fuel
Advantages:Very stable, durable More thrust for a similar size rocket

Liquid Fuel
Advantages:Variable thrust- the amount of fuel and rate of burn can be changed in flight Liquid-fuel boosters are more easily re-usable

Disadvantages:Can't be turned off- once the burn starts, it goes until fuel is used up. Fuel decomposes, must be replaced.

Disadvantages:Fragile, many complex parts Oxidiser (liquid oxygen) must be kept extremely cold.

Power System of Satellite

Nothing can change its state or position without energy. Just like many other machines, satellites also need electrical power to function.!

There are three types of Energies used for the purpose:1) Chemical Energy 2) Nuclear Energy 3) Solar Energy

Working of a Solar Cell


The Sun is a very powerful, clean and convenient source of power, particularly for satellites. The power system generates electricity from solar cells placed on panels outside of the satellite. On spinner satellites, the solar cells cover the outside of the satellite. On three-axis stabilized satellites, the solar panels extend out like wings from the satellite. The solar cells convert solar energy to electricity that is then stored in batteries inside the satellite and is used to power the electronics on board the satellite.

Solar cells work by using energy from the sun to excite electrons. The excited electrons jump from a lower energy level to a higher one, leaving behind a "hole" where the electron used to be. Solar cells use a semiconductor to pull an electron in one direction, and another material to pull the hole in the other direction. This flow of electron and hole in different directions leads to an electric current.

COMMON POWER SYSTEM APPROACHES


Three most common power system implementation approaches found on todays small satellites. These power systems are as follows: - Direct Energy Transfer (DET) with Battery Bus. - DET with Regulated Bus. - Maximum Power Point Tracker with Battery Bus.

Power Generation and Distribution

The Power Generation and Distribution System is responsible for generating and supplying power for the satellite bus and payload. Regardless of the specific design requirements, the basic building blocks for any small-satellite power system are essentially the same. Energy received from the solar cells is used to power the system during sun-on periods, and to recharge the battery pack for sun-off periods. During solar eclipse, the battery is used as the primary power source. The main power line (connected to the solar cells and battery) feeds into a number of DC-DC power converters, which provides the necessary supply voltages for the satellites electronics. A battery monitor is also integrated into this system to measure sustainable power consumption and facilitate in power management. Although every autonomous satellite system has these basic building blocks, each system requires unique power components and circuitry. Specific component selection and circuit design is dependent on a number of system/payload requirements and hardware specifications.

Batteries
Nickel Cadmium Batteries Nickel Hydrogen Batteries Lithium Ion Batteries

In spacecraft design, the Thermal Control System (TCS) has the function to keep all the spacecraft parts within acceptable temperature ranges during all mission phases. ROLE OF THERMAL CONTROL SYSTEM Role of thermal control system is to maintain the following within specified ranges

Temperature Temperature gradient Temperature stability Radiative/conductive heat flow

CONDUCTION In space vehicles or space craft it is eventually by contact through an interface. CONVECTION This heat transfer using gases and liquids is generally used in thermal control system of manned tended satellites(shuttles, ISS, launchers, ascents). RADIATION It is the main mode of heat transfer in vacuum or space. ABLATION This is generally undertaken in re-entry vehicles.

There are 3 kinds of thermal energys that provide heat or high temperature to the satellite. Namely they are solar flux albedo flux planet flux

RADIATIVE CONCEPT PRINCIPLE:Radiative concept balances between absorbed incident radiative energy from sun and the emitted radiant energy . CHARATERISTICS OF RADIATIVE CONCEPT:1) No insulation required. 2) Average temperature of the system is driven or dependent on the external fluxes. 3) Local temperature hot spots are possible that is minor disadvantage of this concept.

2.) INSULATED CONCEPT PRINCIPLE:Radiative concept balances between internally dissipated power and the emitted radiant energy . CHARATERISTICS OF RADIATIVE CONCEPT:1) Insulation is provided to sun-illuminated sides of the satellite. 2) Shadow sides are provided with insulations with high IR emissivity that act as radiators to radiate heat into deep space. 3) Preferred attitude for radiators. 4) Average temperature of the system depends on the internal power dissipation. 5) Local temperature hot spots still possible

COATING

Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS):

MLI BLANKET
RADIATORS

Active Thermal Control System (ATCS):

HEAT PIPES LOUVRES THERMOELECTRIC COOLERS

COATING

MLI BLANKET

THERMOELECTRIC COOLER

Attitude and orbit control systems

Attitude control is the exercise of control over the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity (the celestial sphere, certain fields, nearby objects, etc.).

PRELIMINARY DESIGN
Designing an attitude control system from scratch presents the control systems engineer with a bewildering set of choices. The engineer must select Spacecraft type (dual-spin, momentum-bias, zero-momentum, sun-nadir) Control strategy (active or passive) Actuators (wheels, magnetic torques, thrusters) Sensors (earth, star, sun, planet, magnetic Field, gyros)

Active and Passive ACS


Passive systems maintain the satellite attitude by obtaining equilibrium at the desired orientation. There is no feedback mechanism to check the orientation of the satellite. Active control maintains the satellite attitude by sensing its orientation along the three axes and forming corrections based on these measurements.

System Design
System design can be further decomposed into 1. Attitude determination 2. Attitude control 3. Control distribution

Selecting a Satellite Configuration


A few popular satellite configurations are Gravity-gradient stabilized Spinner Dual-Spin Bias Momentum Zero Momentum

Sensors

The performance of a spacecraft control system is limited by the performance of its sensors and actuators. Many of the sensors are used for determining the attitude or attitude rates of the spacecraft. Others are used for determining the relative orientation or position of components on a spacecraft.
Typical satellite sensors are: Earth sensors Star sensors Sun sensors Horizon sensors Gyros Magnetometers Potentiometers Angle encoders

Actuators

The performance of a spacecraft control system is limited by the performance of its sensors and actuators. Many of the actuators are used just for attitude control. Others are used for orbit adjust and station keeping as well as attitude control.
Typical satellite actuators are Wheels or spheres (momentum or reaction) Pivoted wheels (Control moment gyros are an example) Thrusters Gimbaled thrusters Magnetic torques Reflective surfaces (either to solar or aerodynamic drag)

Thrusters
Small monopropellant and bipropellant thrusters are used for attitude control on many satellites. They are used for attitude control during orbit change maneuvers or for momentum unloading. Thrusters can be throttled, Fired with a fixed length pulse, or pulse width modulated. Throttled thrusters tend to be expensive and complex and are rarely used. Pulse width modulation is frequently used because it lends itself to linear control systems.

Reaction Wheels

When the torque is internal to the spacecraft, the reaction wheel cannot change the inertial angular momentum of the spacecraft. Rather, it moves momentum from the spacecraft to the flywheel. If the external torque on the spacecraft is cyclic with respect to the inertial frame then the reaction wheel can completely control the spacecraft. However, if there is a constant inertial torque the wheel will spin up and eventually saturate. Since there will always be a bias torque on the spacecraft, wheels must be unloaded. This can be done with magnetic torques, reflective surfaces or thrusters.

Control Moment Gyro


Reaction wheels are limited in torque capability and momentum storage capability. A CMG consists of a spinning rotor and one or more motorized gimbals that tilt the rotors angular momentum. As the rotor tilts, the changing angular momentum causes a gyroscopic torque that rotates the spacecraft. The gimbals torque motors are used for control.

Solar sails

Small solar sails, (devices that produce thrust as a reaction force induced by reflecting incident light) may be used to make small attitude control and velocity adjustments.

Gravity-gradient stabilization

In orbit, a spacecraft with one axis much longer than the other two will spontaneously orient so that its long axis points at the planet's center of mass.

Space Tethers
Space tethers are cables, usually long and very strong, which can be used for propulsion, stabilization, or maintaining the formation of space systems by determining the trajectory of spacecraft. Main techniques for employing space tethers are in development: Electrodynamics tether Momentum exchange tether Electric Sail

Satellite Communication

Satellite Components

Satellite Subsystems Telemetry, Tracking, and Control Electrical Power and Thermal Control Attitude Control Communication Subsystems Link Budget Modulation Techniques Coding and Error Correction Networking (service provisioning, multimedia constraints and QoS) Multiple Access and On-board Processing Applications (Internet, Mobile computing)

Satellite Communication

When using a satellite for long distance communications, the satellite acts as a repeater. An earth station transmits the signal up to the satellite (uplink), which in turn retransmits it to the receiving earth station (downlink). Different frequencies are used for uplink/downlink.

The Inbound link is divided into 2 links: Uplink (Mobile terminal Satellite link) Downlink (Satellite linkGateway terminal)

Satellite Frequency Bands

L BAND 1 - 2 GHZ MOBILE SERVICES Mostly used for Intermediate (IF) frequencies ( 950 - 1750 MHz Uplink and 950 - 1900 MHz Downlink ) S BAND 2.5 - 4 GHZ MOBILE SERVICES ( Not used apart from satellite control links & HAM radio. ) C BAND 3.7 - 8 GHZ FIXED SERVICES ( 5.7-6.725 GHz Uplink and 3.625-4.2 GHz Downlink ) X BAND 7.25 - 12 GHZ MILITARY ( 7.25 to 7.75 Downlink and 7.9 to 8.4 Uplink ) Ku BAND 12 - 18 GHZ FIXED SERVICES ( 13.75 - 14.5 GHz Uplink and 10.7 - 12.75 GHz Downlink) Ka BAND 18 - 30.4 GHZ FIXED SERVICES ( 27.5 - 31 GHz Uplink and 19.7 - 20.2 GHz Downlink ) V BAND 37.5 - 50.2 GHZ FIXED SERVICES New - not widely used yet - maybe used instead of Ka Band in the future.

Satellite Orbits

Source: Federation of American Scientists [www.fas.org]

Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO): 36,000 km above Earth, includes commercial and military communications satellites, satellites providing early warning of ballistic missile launch. Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): from 5000 to 15000 km, they include navigation satellites (GPS, Galileo, Glonass). Low Earth Orbit (LEO): from 500 to 1000 km above Earth, includes military intelligence satellites, weather satellites.

Orbits
GEO (22,300mi) High bandwidth High power MEO High Bandwidth High power LEO (400mi) Low bandwidth Low power Smaller footprint More satellites required.

VSAT (very small aperture) Private WAN

Inclination
plane of satellite orbit

satellite orbit perigee d inclination d equatorial plane

Elevation
Elevation: angle e between center of satellite beam and surface

minimal elevation: elevation needed at least to communicate with the satellite

MAC(Media Access Control) protocols for satellite links

ALOHA:
Every station can transmit any time Very low efficiency 18- 36 %.

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)


It is the oldest and most common. the available satellite channel bandwidth is

broken into frequency bands for different earth stations.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)


channels are time multiplexed sequentially Each earth station gets to transmit in a fixed

time slot only. More than one time slot can be assigned to stations with more bandwidth requirements. Requires time synchronization between the Earth Stations.

CDMA : (Code Division Multiple Access)


Combination of time/frequency multiplexing

( a form of spread spectrum modulation). It provides a decentralized way of providing separate channels without timing synchronization. It is a relatively new scheme but is expected to be more common in future satellites.

Block diagram of transponder

Block diagram description


BPF (Band Pass Filter), is designed to separate the different radio channels. LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) amplifies the signal with maximum S/N ratio. Down converter is acting as mixer and it down converts the high frequency to low frequency. TWT amplifier ( Travelling Wave Tube) amplifies the signal over a wide band of frequencies.

Types of Polarisation

Linear Polarisation (horizontal or vertical):


the two orthogonal

components of the electric field are in phase; The direction of the line in the plane depends on the relative amplitudes of the two components.

Circular Polarisation:
The two components are

exactly 90 out of phase and have exactly the same amplitude.


Linear Polarisation Circular Polarisation Elliptical Polarisation

Elliptical Polarisation:
All other cases.

Satellite Communications

Alternating vertical and horizontal polarisation is widely used on satellite communications This reduces interference between programs on the same frequency band transmitted from adjacent satellites (One uses vertical, the next horizontal, and so on) Allows for reduced angular separation between the satellites.

Information Resources for Telecommunication Professionals [www.mlesat.com]

Telemetry and Command Subsystem


The telemetry and command (T&C) subsystem provides the functional interface between the spacecraft and ground command and control. Telemetry parameters describing the status, configuration, and health of the spacecraft payload and subsystems are downlinked to the Command and Data Acquisition (CDA) Station and sent to the Satellite Operations Control Center (SOCC). Commands are received on board the spacecraft for controlling mission operations and managing expendable resources.

Functions:
Telemetry Command Ranging

Command Decoder Block Diagram

Advantages of Satellite Communication


Can reach over large geographical area Flexible (if transparent transponders) Easy to install new circuits Circuit costs independent of distance Broadcast possibilities Temporary applications (restoration) Niche applications Mobile applications (especially "fill-in") Terrestrial network "by-pass" Provision of service to remote or underdeveloped areas User has control over own network 1-for-N multipoint standby possibilities

Disadvantages of Satellite Communication


Large up front capital costs (space segment and launch) Terrestrial break even distance expanding (now approx. size of Europe) Interference and propagation delay Congestion of frequencies and orbits

REFERENCES

Satellite communication -Thomas Pratt ; Charles Bostain ;Jeremy Allnutt Communication Systems -Simon Hykin Satellite Communication -Dennis Roddy