Cement and its manufacturing

Cement • a cement is a binder. a substance that sets and hardens independently. and can bind other materials together. .

they can harden even underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather.Types and uses • Cement used in construction is characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic • Hydraulic cements (e.. • The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete—the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a strong building material that is durable in the face of normal environmental effects.g. Portland cement) harden because of hydration. .

1 to 3 1 to 3 0.Composition INGREDIENT Lime Silica Alumina Calcium Sulphate Iron Oxide Magnesia Sulphur Alkalies CaO SiO2 Al2O3 CaSO4 Fe2O3 MgO S PERCENT 62 22 5 4 3 2 1 1 RANGE 62 to 67 17 to 25 3 to 8 3 to 4 3 to 4 0.2 to 1 Total 100 .

Mnaufacturing • • • • • • • Quarry raw grinding burning Grinding storage Packing dispatch .

.

.

. 3. CRUSHING AND TRANSPORTATION : The raw materials. after crushing. BLASTING 2.Quarry dumper loader Quarry face 1. TRANSPORT crushing conveyor storage at the plant 3. The plant stores the materials before they are homogenized. BLASTING : The raw materials that are used to manufacture cement (mainly limestone and clay) are blasted from the quarry. CRUSHING & TRANSPORTATION 1. 2. are transported to the plant by conveyor. TRANSPORT : The raw materials are loaded into a dumper.

storage at the plant conveyor Raw mill Raw mix preheating 1. 2. when it leaves the kiln. The raw mix burns at 1500 °C producing clinker which. RAW GRINDING : The raw materials are very finely ground in order to produce the raw mix. is rapidly cooled with air fans. RAW GRINDING kiln cooling clinker 2. Back Next . BURNING 1. BURNING : The raw mix is preheated before it goes into the kiln. So. which is heated by a flame that can be as hot as 2000 °C. the raw mix is burnt to produce clinker : the basic material needed to make cement.

2. PACKING. packing.2. . DISPATCH Grinding. dispatch Gypsum and the secondary additives are added to the clinker. STORAGE. PACKING.GRINDING : The clinker and the gypsum are very finely ground giving a “pure cement”. clinker storage Finish grinding 1. GRINDING silos dispatch 1. Other secondary additives and cementitious materials can also be added to make a blended cement. storage. DISPATCH :The cement is stored in silos before being dispatched either in bulk or in bags to its final destination. STORAGE.

Cement users should wear protective clothing . dry cement powder in contact with mucous membranes can cause severe eye or respiratory irritation. As a result. Similarly. wet cement is stronglycaustic and can easily cause severe skin burns if not promptly washed off with water.Safety Issues • Bags of cement routinely have health and safety warnings printed on them because not only is cement highly alkaline. but the setting process is exothermic.

. India with 100.800 million metric tons.Cement industries in world • In 2002 the world production of hydraulic cement was 1. The top three producers were China with 704. and the United States with 91 million metric tons for a combined total of about half the world total by the world's three most populated states.