Carbohydrates

 Carbohydrates

are the most abundant class of biomolecules with a structural formula of (CH2O)n ,where n => 3.  The basic units of carbohydrates are known as monosaccharides.

Carbohydrates [ contd ]
 Carbohydrates

can be grouped into:  a) monosaccharides
 b)

disaccharides
polysaccharides

 c)

Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides are classified according to the chemical nature of their carbonyl group and the number of C atoms.  If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the sugar is called as an aldose [ ex : glucose ]  If the carbonyl group is a ketone,the sugar is a ketose [ ex : fructose ]

Monosaccharides[contd ]
 The

smallest monosaccharides, those with 3 carbon atoms are called trioses.  Those with 4,5,6 and 7 C atoms are respectively called as tetroses,pentoses,hexoses and heptoses.

Monosaccharides
 Alcohols

react with the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones to form hemiacetals and hemiketals respectively  The cyclic forms of glucose and fructose with 6 – and 5 – membered rings are known as glucopyranose and fructofuranose

Disaccharides
 Disaccharides

are made of 2 monosaccharide subunits [ ex :sucrose, lactose and maltose]  Sucrose : is the most abundant disacch. and is made of glucose and fructose subunits linked by alpha – 1,2 glycosidic bond

Disachharides [ contd ]
 Lactose

: made of galactose and glucose subunits linked by beta 1,4 glycosidic bonds : is made of 2 glucose residues and are linked by alpha1,4 glycosidic bond

 Maltose

Polysaccharides
 Polysaccharides

includes :  Cellulose and chitin – structural polysacch.
 Starch

and glycogen – storage polysacch.

Polysaccharides [ contd ]
 Cellulose

: is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. is a linear polymer of upto 15,000’s Dglucose residues linked by beta 1,4 glycosidic bonds

 Cellulose

Polysaccharides [ contd ]
 Chitin

: is the principle structural component of the exoskeletons of invertebrates [ crustaceans,insects] and is also present in the cell wall of fungi and algae

Polysaccharides [ contd]
 Starch

: is deposited in the cytoplasm of plant cell as insoluble granules and is composed of alpha amylose and amylopectin.  a) alpha amylose is a linear polymer of several 1000’s glucose residues linked by alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds

Polysaccharides [ contd ]
 b)

amylopectin: consists mainly of alpha 1,4 linked glucose residues but is a branched molecule with alpha 1,6 branch points for every 24- 30 glucose residues.

Polysaccharides [ contd ]
 Glycogen

: is most prevalent in the skeletal muscle and liver and occurs in the form of cytoplasmic granules.  The primary structure of glycogen resembles that of amylopectin but, glycogen more highly branched with branch points occurring every 8-12 glucose residues.