BOILER EFFICIENCY

Steam Output

Radiation Loss

Second Pass

Heat Input

ESP Furnace

Heat Input is Pulverised Coal Heat Output is Superheated Steam

Efficiency Calculations
Standard Applied :- ASME Standard PTC 4.1

Calculation Method :- Loss Method Losses calculated as percentage of INPUT as 100%

Losses in Boilers Heat Input Second Pass Furnace ESP 1) Loss due to dry flue gas = 4.928% .

Losses in Boilers Contd.331% . Second Pass Heat Input Furnace ESP 2) Loss due to Unburnt Carbon = 0.

Heat of Bottom Ash 4) Due to Sen. Heat of Fly Ash = 0. Heat Input Furnace Second Pass ESP 3) Due to Sen.071% = 0.Losses in Boilers Contd.102% .

Losses in Boilers Contd.200% . Heat Input Furnace Second Pass ESP 5) Radiation Losses = 0.

263% 7) Loss due to Hydrogen in Fuel = 5.327% Total Losses = 13.83% .074% = 1.Losses Related to Coal & Ambient Air Quality 6) Loss due to moisture in Fuel = 1.537% 8) Loss due to Moisture in Air 9) Unaccounted Losses = 0.

Data required for Boiler Efficiency Calculations Unit load FW Flow at Econ inlet Wet bulb Temp Dry bulb Temp Barometric Pressure Total Coal Flow Unburnt C in BA Unburnt C in FA Radiation & Unaccounted Losses % Fly ash to Total Ash % Bottom ash to Total ash MW T/hr 0C 0C mmHg T/hr % % % % % .

FG Temp APH Out Air to APH in Air APH out Total Primary Flow Total Air Flow L Total Air Flow R Design Ambient / Ref air Temp .Data required………. FG Temp APH in Ave. Value % % % % Kcal/kg % % % % Kcal/kg Ave FG O2 APH in Ave FG O2 APH Out Ave FG CO2 APH in Ave FG CO2 APH Out Ave FG CO APH in Ave FG CO APH Out Ave.2 Proximate Analysis of Coal Air Dry As fired Moisture Ash Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon Gross Cal.

Oxygen = 100-(Carbon+Hydrogen+Nitrogen+Ash AD+Moisture AD)* GCV AF/GCV AD 7. Carbon = (Fixed Carbon AD+0.9(Vol Matter AD-14)) *GCV AF/GCV AD 2. Nitrogen = (2. Hydrogen = Vol. Ash = Ash AF and 8. Moisture = Moisture AF 5.012 * Vol.4 * GCV AF/GCV AD 3.Matter AD*(7.35/(Vol Matter AD+10)0. Gross Cal.013)* GCV AF/GCV AD 4.Calculations Ultimate Analysis As fired Basis 1. Value=GCV AF .Matter AD)* GCV AF/GCV AD 6.1-0. Sulphur = 0.

Flue gas temp ..APH Out .Calculations ….186) % Carbon in fuel % Sulfur in fuel % Carbon in ash / kg of fuel kg/kg coal Specific Heat of Gas kg/kg C Avg. Losses Dry Gas Loss = Sensible heat of dry gas*100/(GCV AF*4.

LOSS DUE TO DRY FLUE GAS THE DESIGNER GIVES THIS LOSS AT THE FLUE GAS APH OUTLET TEMP OF 140 C ANY INCREASE IN THE FGT MORE THAN 1400C WILL BE RESULTING IN MORE LOSSES.CONTROLLABLE LOSSES 1 FOLLOWING LOSSES CAN BE CONTROLLED 1. THIS TEMP HAS TO BE CONTROLLED BY PROPER CLEANING OF THE FURNACE 0 .

.CONTROLLABLE LOSSES 2a LOSSES DUE TO THE UNBURNT COAL IN BOTTOM AND FLY ASH. IT SHALL NOT EXCEED 1%.8 % ANY INCREASE IN THIS PERCENTAGE BEYOND THIS WILL RESULT IN MORE LOSSES IF UNBURNT IN BOTTOM ASH IS MORE. CHECK THE FINENESS OF PULVERISED COAL. CHECK THE % RETENTION ON 50 MESH. THE CULPRIT IS THE COAL MILL. LOSS DUE TO UNBURNT IN BOTTOM ASH THE DESIGNER GIVES THIS %AGE AS MAX 4.

2%.8%. SIMULTANIOUSLY CHECK FOR AIR LEAKAGES/INGRESS IN THE SECOND PASS .8% IT INDICATES INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION DUE TO LESS AMOUNT OF AIR CHECK FOR O2 % AT THE APH FG INLET FOR 2. IF UNBURNT IN FLY ASH EXCEEDS 0. INCREASE IF NECESSORY TO 3.CONTROLLABLE LOSSES 2b CHECK THE UNBURNT IN FLY ASH SAMPLE TAKEN FROM THE FIRST HOPPER OF ESP/BF AS PER THE DESIGNER IT SHALL NOT EXCEED 0. AGAIN CHECK FOR UNBURNTS IN FLY ASH.8%.

4% in Coal . 2. Bottom Ash is 20% of Total Ash 3.Losses Calculations Assumptions:- 1. Sulphur is 0. Fly Ash is 80% of Total Ash.

DATA REQUIRED Fuel Properties Proximate Analysis of Coal Air Dry Basis Moisture % Ash % Volatile Matter % Fixed Carbon % As Fired basis Moisture % Ash % Volatile Matter % Fixed Carbon % Gross Cal. Value % Gross Cal. Value % .

Data Required contd. Unit load FW Flow at Econ inlet Wet bulb Temp Dry BulbTemp MW T/hr 0C 0C Barometric Pressure Total Coal Flow Unburnt Carbon in BA Unburnt Carbon in FA T/hr % % .

** Ave FG O2 APH in ** Ave FG CO2 APH in ** Ave FG CO APH in ** Ave FG CO2 APH Out ** Air to APH in Temp ** Total Air Flow L ** Ave FG O2 APH Out ** Ave FG CO APH Out ** Air APH out Temp ** Total Air Flow R ** Ave. FG Temp APH in ** Ave.Data Required Contd. FG Temp APH Out ** Total Primary Air Flow .

GCV Calculations for Coal Calculations of GCV As fired Basis Coal sample is taken as received basis. heated for calculation of A) Total Moisture content = TM% Air Dry Basis The sample is air dried for removal of surface moisture and burned completely for A) Inherent moisture content B) Ash percentage = M% = A% .

4 M%)/1. 1) Useful Heat Value = 8900 – 138(A%+M%) kcal/kg 2) Gross Calorific Value (Air Dry Basis) 3) Ash % (As fired basis) = (UHV + 3645 – 75.TM%)/(100 – M%) % 4) Gross Calorific Value (As fired Basis) 5) Net Calorific Value = [GCVAD] (100 .TM%)/(100 – M%) Kcal/kg = [GCV] – 10.466 Kcal/kg = [A %] (100 .GCV Calculations for Coal Contd.02M% Kcal/kg .

6(Tgo-Trai) .Calculations Weight of Dry Gas = (Ca+S/2.67-100*U)/(12*CO2out) Ca = % Carbon in fuel (Ultimate Analysis as Fired) S = % Sulfur in fuel (Ultimate Analysis as Fired) A = % of Ash in fuel (Ultimate Analysis as Fired) Unburned C in Ash = Pfa/100*Cfa + Pba/100*Cba U = Carbon in ash / kg of fuel=A/100*Cash/(100-Cash) CO2 Out = Avg. CO2 Flue Gas -APH Out Sensible Heat Dry Gas = Wd*30.

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