Types of Information System

Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder

F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems

Lachlan M. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder

4 Levels of Information System
 Operational-level

Systems

Support operational managers by keeping track of the elementary activities and transactions of the organisation. The principle purpose of systems at this level is to answer routine questions and track the flow of transactions through the organisation. Covers things such as sales, receipts, cash deposits, payroll, credit decisions, flow of materials.
F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder

The purpose of these systems is to help the organisation discover. F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. specially in the form of collaboration tools. Knowledge-level Systems Support knowledge and data workers in an organisation. These systems. workstations. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . and to help control the flow of paperwork. and office systems. are the fastest growing applications in business today. organise and integrate new and existing knowledge in to the business.

Some of these systems support non-routine decisionmaking. and administrative activities of middle managers. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . as well as from normal operational-level data. These typically provide periodic reports rather than instant information on operations. controlling. focusing on less-structured decisions for which information requirements are not always clear. This will often require information from outside the organisation. decision-making. F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. Management-level Systems Designed to serve the the monitoring.

both within the organisation and in the external environment. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . Principal concern is matching organisational capability to changes. 5 .10 years) in the external environment. F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. occurring in the medium to long term (i. Strategic-level Systems Help senior management tackle and address strategic issues and long-term trends.e. and opportunities.

structures reflecting bureaucratic. knowledge. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . product and matrix models are also possible. F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. enterprise level information systems attempt to encompass the whole organisation in one system. an organisation might have operational. so. while the most commonlyadopted systems structure would simply follow the standard functional model.Typically. This would be based on the management model adopted by the organisation. management and strategic level systems for each functional area within the organisation. As identified before.

F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder .

F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder .

as shown in the diagram. five functional categories are identified.Operational-level Systems  Transaction-Processing Systems (TPS) Basic business systems Perform daily routine transactions necessary for business functions At the operational level. resources and goals are predefined and highly structured Generally. tasks. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M.

F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder .

Knowledge-level Systems  Office Automation Systems (OAS) Targeted at meeting the knowledge needs of data workers within the organisation Data workers tend to process rather than create information. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . Typical OAS handle and manage documents. F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. manipulation or dissemination. scheduling and communication. Primarily involved in information use.

scientists. lawyers). F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. their jobs consist primarily in creating new information and knowledge KWS. Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) Targeted at meeting the knowledge needs of knowledge workers within the organisation In general. and its dissemination and integration throughout the organisation. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . promote the creation of new knowledge. knowledge workers hold degreelevel professional qualifications (e. such as scientific or engineering design workstations.g. engineers.

dependent on the underlying TPS for their data.Management-level Systems  Management Information Systems (MIS) MIS provide managers with reports and. in some cases. on-line access to the organisations current performance and historical records Typically these systems focus entirely on internal events. MIS summarise and report on the basic operations of the organisation. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . providing the information for short-term planning and decision making. F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M.

F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder .

 Decision-Support Systems (DSS) As MIS. or rapidly changing. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . aggregation and analysis tools. interactive tools F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M. but also information from external sources Greater analytical power than other systems. incorporate modelling tools. these serve the needs of the management level of the organisation Focus on helping managers make decisions that are semi-structured. unique. and support what-if scenarios Must provide user-friendly. and not easily specified in advance Use internal information from TPS and MIS.

MacKinnon & Phil Trinder .Voyage-estimating Decision Support System F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M.

but to tackle a changing array of problems F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M.Strategic-level Systems  Executive Support/Information Systems (ESS/EIS) Serve the strategic level of the organisation ESS/EIS address unstructured decisions and create a generalised computing and communications environment. rather than providing any fixed application or specific capability. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . Such systems are not designed to solve specific problems.

and track critical data. such as new tax laws or competitors. MacKinnon & Phil Trinder . and also draw summarised information from internal MIS and DSS These systems filter. emphasising the reduction of time and effort required to obtain information useful to executive management ESS/EIS employ advanced graphics software to provide highly visual and easy-to-use representations of complex information and current trends. compress. but they tend not to provide analytical models F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M.ESS/EIS are designed to incorporate data about external events.

MacKinnon & Phil Trinder .F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M.

MacKinnon & Phil Trinder .Inter-relationships and inter-dependencies between IS types F21DF1: Databases & Information Systems Lachlan M.