Fluids
Characteristics of fluids
Microscopically molecules of a fluid do not have longrange
order. But liquids do have shortrange order unlike gases
Fluids can flow and conform to the boundaries of a container
Fluids cannot sustain a shearing stress
Fluids (contd)
Some useful quantities
Density for
V
m
V
m
=
A
A
=
for uniform solid or liquid
unit kg/m
3
(at STP for a gas)
3 3 3
kg/m 2 . 1 ; kg/m 10 0 . 1 = =
air water
3 3 3 3
kg/m 10 35 . 11 ; kg/m 10 1 . 0 = =
lead styrofoam
Pressure for area
m
V
mass ,volume
A A and normal force
AF
dA
dF
A
F
p
A
A
A
A
=
0
unit pascal
2
m 1 / N 1 Pa =
in SI unit
in SI unit
other useful units:
2 5
in / lb 7 . 14 torr 760 Pa 10 01 . 1 atm 1 = = =
height of a column of Hg corresponding to this pressure (mm)
Pressure
Pressure of a liquid at rest (uniform density)
A
A
2
y
1
y
fluid level
imaginary
box
2
F
1
F
mg
A p F
1 1
=
A p F
2 2
=
0 ) (
1 2 2 1
= + gA y y F F
weight of the imaginary box
hg
g y y p p
=
= ) (
1 2 1 2
mg
h
hg p p + =
1 2
Pressure (contd)
Pressure of a fluid at rest : gauge pressure
A
A
2
y
1
y
fluid level
imaginary
box
2
F
1
F
mg
h
hg p p + =
1 2
0
p
gauge pressure:
gauge
gauge
p p p
p p p
2 0 2
1 0 1
+ =
+ =
atmospheric pressure
atmospheric
pressure
A simple model for atmospheric pressure
Pressure of a gas at rest ( )
kp =
gdy y y g p p dp = = = ) (
2 1 1 2
When , 0 ,
1 2 1 2
y y p p
kpgdy gdy dp = =
kpg dy dp = /
) (
1 2
1 2
y y kg
e p p
=
Barometer
Pressure measurement using a liquid:
(measures absolute pressure)
h
0 = p
0
p
atmospheric
pressure
From
) (
2 1 1 2
y y g p p + =
as
0 1 2 2
, , 0 p p h y p = = =
gh p =
0
If the liquid is mercury, for 1 atm :
m/s 83 . 9 , kg/m 10 6 . 13
, Pa 10 3 . 101 atm 1
3 3
3
0
= =
= =
g
p
Hg
mm 760 m 758 . 0 /
0
~ = = g p h
Manometer
Pressure measurement using a liquid :
(measures gauge pressure)
g
p
h
liquid
tank
manometer
0
p
level 1
level 2
) (
2 1 1 2
y y g p p + =
0 ,
, ,
1 0 1
2 2
= =
= =
y p p
h y p p
gh p p p
g
= =
0
gauge pressure
Pascals law
Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to every portion of the fluid and walls
of the containing vessel
piston
weight
liquid
P
h
ext
p
p
(area A)
w
gh p p p
ext
+ + =
0
pressure at P
pressure due
to weight w:
w/A
atmospheric
pressure
pressure due to
liquid above P
incompressible
ext
p p A = A
Pascals law (contd)
Hydraulic lever
1
x A
2
x A
1
F
2
F
1
A
2
A
2 2 1 1
/ / A F A F p = =
1 1 2 2
) / ( F A A F =
1 2 1 2
1 / F F A A > >
1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1
) / ( x A A x A x A x A = A A = A
1 1 1
1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
) / ( ) / (
W x F
x A A F A A x F W
= A =
A = A =
Buoyancy
Origin of buoyancy
Consider a submerged massless object filled with the same fluid
as the fluid that surrounds the object
1
P
2
P
1
F
2
F
0 ) (
1 2
= = g m F F F
f net
buoyancy
mass of fluid in the object
The object is at rest
Now fill the object with another material
g m F
f b
=
buoyant force
0 ) (
1 2
= = g m F F F
obj net
g m F
f b
=
opposite dir.
m
f
g
Buoyancy
Origin of buoyancy (contd)
Consider a portion of fluid at rest in a container surrounded by an
imaginary boundary represented in dashed line.
Since the portion of the fluid defined by the surface in dashed line
is at rest, the net force on this portion due to pressure must be
equal to that of the weight of the fluid inside the surface, and
opposite in direction.
dF
dF
dF
dF
dF
dF
dF
dF
The same argument can be applied when the
imaginary portion of the fluid is replaced by an
object that occupies the same space.
X
0
fluid b fluid net
= = =
g V F g m F d F
F
net
mg
Vg g m F
fluid fluid b
= =
buoyant force
Buoyancy
Archimedess principle
The buoyant force on a partly or completely submerged object
is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid:
Vg
g m g m g m F F
obj f
obj f obj b net
) ( =
= =
If
0 , > >
net obj f
F
apparent weight
g m Vg W
obj obj f
< = ) (
0 , < <
net obj f
F
If
The object will rise until a part of it comes out above the fluid
Surface when the average density increases to
f
Object sinks
Object floats
What fraction of an iceberg is submerged in the sea water?
Lets assume that the total volume of the iceberg is V
i
.
Then the weight of the iceberg F
gi
is
Since the whole system is at its
static equilibrium, we obtain
g V F
i i gi
=
Lets then assume that the volume of the iceberg
submerged in the sea water is V
w
. The buoyant force B
caused by the displaced water becomes
g V B
w w
=
g V g V
w w i i
=
Therefore the fraction of the
volume of the iceberg
submerged under the surface of
the sea water is
890 . 0
/ 1030
/ 917
3
3
= = =
m kg
m kg
V
V
w
i
i
w
wood
=6.00x10
2
kg/m
3
g m B g m B
raft raft
= = 0
g Ah g V g m B
water water water water
) ( ) ( = = =
g V g m
raft raft raft
) ( =
g V g Ah
raft raft water
) ( ) ( =
m 0632 . 0 = =
A
V
h
water
raft raft
Example
Density and Pressure
Example
Oil and water
=0.700 g/cm
3
=1025 kg/m
3
h
1
=8.00 m
h
2
=5.00 m
Pa 10 1.56
m) 00 . 8 (
) m/s 80 . 9 )( kg/m 10 00 . 7 (
Pa 10 01 . 1
5
2 3 2
5
1 0 1
=
+
= + = gh P P
Pa 10 06 . 2
5
2 1
=
+ = gh P P
bot
Ideal fluid flow
Ideal fluids in motion
Incompressible ( density is constant at any position)
No internal friction (no viscosity)
Steady (nonturbulent) flow the velocity at a point is
constant in time.
flow tube
flow lines
flow line : The path of an individual particle in a
moving fluid
steady flow: A flow whose pattern does not change
with time. Every element passing
through a given point follows the same
flow line
streamline : A curve whose tangent at any point is
in the direction of the fluid velocity at
that point
flow tube : The flow lines passing through the edge
of an imaginary area such as A
A
Continuity equation
Continuity equation I (incompressible fluid)
1
A
2
A
dt v
1
dt v
2
1
v
2
v
Av dt dV = /
The volume of the fluid that passes through
area A during a small time interval dt :
Avdt dV =
dt v A dV dt v A dV
2 2 2 1 1 1
; = =
In an ideal fluid the density is constant.
In a time interval dt the mass that flows
into Area 1 is the same as the mass that
flows out of Area 2.
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
v A v A dt v A dt v A = =
The mass of a moving fluid does not change as it flows.
Continuity equation
Volume flow rate
1
A
2
A
dt v
1
dt v
2
1
v
2
v
Avdt dV =
2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1
v A v A dt v A dt v A = =
Av dt dV = /
volume flow rate
Continuity equation II
(compressible fluid)
Bernoullis equation
Work done by pressure
1
A
2
A
dt v ds
1 1
=
dt v ds
2 2
=
1
v
2
v
2 2 2
A p F =
1 1 1
A p F =
1
y
2
y
dV
dV
dV p p
ds A p ds A p dW
) (
2 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
=
=
Change in kinetic energy
2 2 1 1
ds A ds A dV = =
) ( ) 2 / 1 (
2
1
2
2
v v dV dK =
) (
1 2
y y dVg dU =
Change in potential energy
Bernoullis equation
dU dK dW + =
Energy conservation
dV p p dW ) (
2 1
=
) ( ) 2 / 1 (
2
1
2
2
v v dV dK =
) (
1 2
y y dVg dU =
= dV p p ) (
2 1
) ( ) ( ) 2 / 1 (
1 2
2
1
2
2
y y dVg v v dV +
) ( ) ( ) 2 / 1 (
1 2
2
1
2
2 2 1
y y g v v p p + =
const. ) 2 / 1 ( ) 2 / 1 (
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
= + + = + + v gy p v gy p
Example
Venturi meter
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
v p v p + = +
) 1 (
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1 2 1
=
A
A
v p p
1
2
1
2
v
A
A
v =
h
gh p p =
2 1
1 ) / (
2
2
2 1
1
=
A A
gh
v
Example
Torricellis theorem
The velocity of the fluid coming out of a hole in a tank as
shown in the figure can be calculated using Bernoullis
equation.
At the top surface the velocity
of the fluid is zero. The pressures
at the top surface and at the hole
are the same, namely, the
atmospheric pressure.
2 2
) 2 / 1 ( ) 2 / 1 (
hole hole hole top top top
v gy p v gy p + + = + +
gh v v y y g
hole hole hole top
2 ) 2 / 1 ( ) (
2
= =
Example
Siphon
Suppose a Ushaped piece of pipe is completely submerged in
water, filled with water, and then turned upside down under water.
As you slowly pull the top of the Ushaped piece of pipe out of
water, the water does not run out of the pipe. WHY?
Example
Siphon
Suppose a Ushaped piece of pipe is completely submerged in
water, filled with water, and then turned upside down under water.
As you slowly pull the top of the Ushaped piece of pipe out of
water, the water does not run out of the pipe. WHY?
Air cannot enter the pipe. As the water starts running out of the pipe,
a near vacuum is created in the topmost region of the inverted U. The
pressure here drops to near zero. The atmospheric pressure on the
surface of the water in the bucket pushes the water into the Ushaped
pipe.
Example
Siphon
If a Ushaped hose or pipe connects a liquidfilled container at a
higher altitude to a container at a lower altitude over a barrier, the
liquid can be siphoned into the container at the lower altitude.
Atmospheric pressure helps to push the liquid over the barrier.
Example
Siphon
When P
1
>P
2
, the fluid can be siphoned from the left to the
right bucket.
Water garden
A water hose 2.50 cm in diameter is used by a gardener to fill a
30.0liter bucket. The gardener notices that it takes 1.00 min to fill
the bucket. A nozzle with an opening of crosssectional area 0.500
cm
2
is then attached to the hose. The nozzle is held so that water
is projected horizontally from a point 1.00 m above the ground. Over
what horizontal distance can the water be projected?
/s m 10 00 . 5
s 0 . 60
min 00 . 1
cm 100.0
m 00 . 1
L 00 . 1
cm 10 00 . 1
min 1.00
L 0 . 30
rate flow volume
3 3
3
3 3
=

.

\


.

\



.

\

=
velocity) initial the of component  x the : (
0 0 2 2 2 1 1 x x
v v A v A v A = =
m/s 0 . 10
m 10 500 . 0
/ m 10 00 . 5
2 4
3 4
2
1 1
0
=
= =
s
A
v A
v
x
m 52 . 4 s; 452 . 0
m/s 80 . 9
m) 00 . 1 ( 2 2
2
1
0
2
2
0
= = =
=
A
= = A t v x
g
t
t gt t v y
x y
Example
Consider a water tank with a hole.
(a) Find the speed of the water
leaving through the hole.
Example : A water tank
h =0.500 m
y
1
=3.00 m
2 0 1
2
1 0
2
1
gy P gy v P + = + +
m/s 13 . 3
2 ) ( 2
1 2 1
=
= = gh y y g v
(b) Find where the stream hits the ground.
s 782 . 0
2
1
0
0
2
1
= + = = A t t v gt y y
y
m 45 . 2
1 0
= = = t v t v x
x
x
y
Find the speed at Point 1.
Example : Fluid flow in a pipe
A
2
=1.00 m
2
A
1
=0.500 m
2
h =5.00 m
2
2
2 0 1
2
1 0
2
1
2
1
gy v P gy v P + + = + +
2 2 1 1
v A v A =
1
2
1
2
v
A
A
v =
2
2
1
2
1
0 1
2
1 0
2
1
2
1
gy v
A
A
P gy v P +


.

\

+ = + +
m/s 4 . 11
) / ( 1
2
2 ) ( 2 1
2
2 1
1 1 2
2
2
1
2
1
=
= = =
(
(


.

\

A A
gh
v gh y y g
A
A
v
Viscosity and turbulence
Viscosity
Viscosity is internal friction in a fluid, and viscous forces oppose
the motion of one portion of a fluid relative to another.
Viscosity and turbulence
Drag
If a fluid in laminar flow flows around an obstacle, it exerts a viscous
drag on obstacle. Frictional forces accelerate the fluid backward
against the direction of flow and the obstacle forward in the direction
of flow.
laminar flow
adjacent layers of fluid slide
smoothly past each other and
flow is steady
Viscosity and turbulence
Turbulence
When the speed of a flowing
fluid exceeds a certain critical
value the flow is no longer laminar.
The flow patter becomes extremely
irregular and complex, and it changes
continuously in time. There is no
steady flow pattern. This chaotic flow
Is called turbulence.
Problems
Problem 1
2.00 m
The upper edge of a gate in a dam runs
the water surface. The gate is 2.00 m high
and 4.00 m wide and is hinged along the
horizontal line through its center. Calculate
the torque about the hinge arising from
the force due to the water.
Solution
Denote the width and depth at the bottom of the gate by w and H.
The force on a strip of vertical thickness dh at a depth h is:
and the torque about the hinge is
After integrating from h=0 to h=H, you get the torque:
) (wdh gh dF =
. ) 2 / ( dh H h gwh d = t
. 10 61 . 2 12 /
4 3
m N gwH = = t
Problem 2
Solution
(a) From Archimedess principle so
An object with height h, mass M, and a uniform crosssectional area A
floats upright in a liquid with density .
(a) Calculate the vertical distance from the surface of the liquid to the
bottom of the floating object in equilibrium.
(b) A downward force with magnitude F is applied to the top of the object.
At the new equilibrium position, how much farther below the surface of
the liquid is the bottom of the object than it was in part (a)?
(c) Calculate the period of the oscillation when the force F is suddenly
removed.
, Mg gLA=
). /( A M L =
(b) The buoyant force is: With the result of part (a) solving
for x gives:
. ) ( F Mg x L gA + =
). /( gA F x =
(c) The force is always in the direction toward the equilibrium, namely, a
restoring force Therefore the spring constant is
and the period of the oscillation is
. gAx Mg F F
buoy res
= =
gA k =
. ) /( 2 / 2 gA M k M T t t = =
Problem 3
Solution
You cast some metal of density
m
in a mold, but you are worried that there
might be cavities within the casting. You measure the weight of the casting
to be w, and the buoyant force when it is completely surrounded by water
to be B. (a) Show that is the total volume
of any enclosed cavities. (b) If your metal is copper, the castings weight
is 156 N, and the buoyant force is 20 N, what is the total volume of any
enclosed cavities in your casting? What fraction is this of the total volume
of the casting?
(a) Denote the total volume V. If the density of air is neglected, the buoyant
force in terms of the weight is:
Therefore
] / ) / [(
0
V g w g gV B
m water water
+ = =
) /( ) /(
0
g w g B V
m water
=
). /( ) /(
0
g w g B V
m water
=
(b)
. 10 52 . 2 ) /( ) /(
3 4
m g w g B
Cu water
= The total volume of the casting is
), /( g B
water
), (
R L
y y g
A
, ) ( a A A y y g
R L
= . ) / ( ) ( g a y y
R L
=
, 2 /
2
e =
rad
a
). 2 /( ) / )( 2 / (
2 2 2
g g e e =
A A