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INTRODUCTION STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WIND EFFECT SOIL INVESTIGATION FOUNDATION PLANNING OF CONCRETE WORK CLADDING AND LIFTS
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Burj Khalifa (formally Dubai) is the new tallest tower in the world. Construction began on 21 September 2004 & completed on 1 October 2009. The building was officially opened on 4 January 2010 Height of the Tower is 828m . It‟s Owner is EMAAR Properties with total investments of US$ 1.5 billion. The tower is designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill Adrian smith was chief architect.
World‟s Tallest Building • Highest outdoor observation deck in the world (124th floor) at 452 m • World's highest and fastest elevators at speed of 64 km/h • Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m • World's highest installation of an aluminum and glass facade. at a height of 512 m • World's highest New Year fireworks display .
buttresses the others via a six-sided central core. Each wing. with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns. Designers purposely shaped the structural concrete Burj Khalifa – “Y” shaped in plan – to reduce the wind forces on the tower. and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the pinnacle. as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability.Main Structure & Design The tower superstructure of Burj Dubai is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156. or hexagonal hub . The structural system can be described as a “buttressed” core.
Structural Analysis & Design The top section of the Tower consists of a structural steel spire utilizing a diagonally braced lateral system. The exterior exposed steel is protected with a flame applied aluminum finish. wind. The structural steel spire was designed for gravity. . seismic and fatigue in accordance with the requirements of Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings .
such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path.Main Structure & Design Tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsionally similar to a closed tube. The setbacks are organized with the tower‟s grid. Each tier of the building sets back in a spiral stepping pattern up the building. The advantage of the stepping and shaping is to “confuse the wind”. The wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. .
.Structural Analysis & Design The center hexagonal walls are buttressed by the wing walls and hammer head walls which behave as the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments.
. The core walls are typically linked through a series of 800mm to 1100mm deep reinforced concrete or composite link beams at every level.Structural Analysis & Design Concrete Dimensions The core walls vary in thickness from 1300mm to 500mm. The residential and hotel floor framing system of the Tower consists of 200mm to 300mm two-way reinforced concrete flat plate slabs spanning approximately 9 meters between the exterior columns and the interior core wall.
Types of wind Winds that are of interest in the design of buildings can be classified into three major types ◦ Prevailing Winds (Trade winds) ◦ seasonal winds ◦ local winds .
whereas those of local winds are studied separately.Types of wind The characteristics of the prevailing and seasonal winds are analytically studied together. The variations in the local winds are referred to as gusts. The variations in the speed of prevailing and seasonal winds are referred to as fluctuations in mean velocity. .
Wind behavior .
It is a large extrapolation to go from groundbased data at the 10 m height to heights of over 600 m using standard assumptions Therefore for Burj Dubai more direct measurements of upper level winds were sought.WIND CLIMATE STUDIES An important question when designing a tower of over 600 m height is the nature of the wind velocity profile and wind turbulence in the upper levels. where about 16 years of data were available taken on average about twice per day. The closest station with balloon records was Abu Dhabi. .
A controlled permeability formwork .Soil Investigation & Ground Water • The groundwater in which the Burj Dubai substructure is constructed is particularly severe. Addition of corrosion inhibitors to the concrete mix 3. Stringent crack control design criteria 4. 5. . Increased concrete cover 2. • Measures implemented include specialized waterproofing systems: 1. • The chloride and sulfate concentrations found in the groundwater are even higher than the concentrations in sea water. Impressed current cathodic protection system utilizing titanium mesh .
32. • The concrete mix for the piles was a 60 MPa mix based on a triple blend with 25% fly ash.Ground Water & Concrete Mix • A specially designed concrete mix was formulated to resist attack from the ground water. and a water to cement ratio of 0. • The concrete was also designed as a fully self consolidating concrete. 7% silica fume. A robust cathodic protection system for both the bored piles and the raft foundation .
45m long with the tower raft founded at -7. When the rebar cage was placed in the piles.55m The C60 (cube strength) SCC concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer slurry. which greatly simplified the raft construction.5m diameter and 47. . special attention was paid to orient the rebar cage such that the raft bottom rebar could be threaded through the numerous pile rebar cages without interruption.Piles The Tower raft is supported by 194 boredcastin-place piles 1.
000 ton each. The piles are 1. The Tower pile load test supported over 6.000 ton.The Tower raft is supported by 194 bored cast-in-place piles.5 meter in diameter and approximately 43 meters long with a design capacity of 3. .
the average foundation settlement was 30mm . When the construction was at Level 135.Settlement It was determined the maximum long-term settlement over time would be about a maximum of 80mm . This settlement would be a gradual curvature of the top of grade over the entire large site.
Utilize optimum formwork system to accommodate various building shapes along the building height. Develop organized logistic plans throughout the construction period. .Construction Achieve a three (3) day-cycle for structural works. Develop optimum transportation systems with large capacity high speed equipment. Apply all high-rise construction technologies available at the time of construction.
Planning for the concrete work • Prior to the construction of the tower. considering major daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations • . Tests are needed to confirm the construction sequence of these large elements and to develop curing plans that are appropriate for the project. extensive concrete testing and quality control programs were put in place to ensure that all concrete works are done in agreement with all parties involved.
modulus of elasticity. Water penetration tests and rapid chloride permeability test. Mechanical properties. Durability tests which included initial surface absorption test and 30 minute absorption test. . including compressive strength. Shrinkage test program for all concrete mix designs. and split tensile strength.Testing Regimes for Concrete • Trial mix designs for all concrete types needed for • • • • • • • the project. Heat of hydration analysis and tests. Creep and shrinkage test program for all concrete mix design. Pump simulation test for all concrete mix design grades up to at least 600 meters.
Technologies used to achieve 3-day cycles • Auto Climbing formwork system (ACS) • Rebar pre-fabrication • High performance concrete suitable for • • • providing high strength. part of ACS formwork system . high durability requirement. high modulus. and pumping Advanced concrete pumping technology Simple drop head formwork system that can be dismantled and assembled quickly with minimum labor requirements Column/Wall proceeding method.
.Sequence of Construction and ACS The ACS form work is divided into four sections consisting of the center core wall that is followed by the wing wall construction along each of the three tower wings.
wing walls.Rebar Pre-fabrication • Most of the reinforcing bars for the core walls. and the nose columns were prefabricated at the ground level. The rebar was assembled in double story modules to speed up the vertical element construction time. This rebar fabrication and pre-assembly method resulted in man quality control advantages and reduced the number of workers going up and down the tower. • • .
Concrete Pumping Level Ground ~ L145 L146 ~ L160M L160M ~ Spire1 Height 531 m 624 m 681. of Main 1 no. of Stand by Secondary Pumping Pump#1~ #3 185 / 320 bar 220 / 260 bar 71 / 36 m3/hr Pump#4 110 m3/hr .7 m Pouring Method Direct Pumping Re-pumping Hopper by T/C Remarks Target Height (RC Structure) Secondary Pump on L124 (East wing 442m) From Ground Level Concrete Pump Level Pressure Output Engin e 470 kw 200 kw Remarks 2 nos.
Concrete Pumping .
Concrete Pumping .
Evacuation Burj Dubai has built in fire protection as its concrete back bone is naturally fire resistant But how will people go out in an emergency? • The burj dubai contains 9 special rooms build throw layers of reinforced concrete and fire proof sheeting • The walls of these rooms will stand the heat of a fire for 2 hours • Each room has special supply of air pumped throw fire resistant pipes. sealed fire proofed doors stop smoke from leaking in .
.Evacuation • How they prevent the smoke from blocking the access route to the rooms? Early warning system: • • • • • • Fire activate a smoke detector Heat sensor Water sprinklers Net work of high power fans kick in Fans force new clean cool air throw fire resistant ducts into the building The fresh air pushes the smoke out of the stair way keeping the evacuation route clear.
Radiation that will otherwise heat up the building . Outside coat reflects the daily solar heat comes direct from the sun.Cladding • 30000 glass panels of high quality European glass • • enough to cover 17 football fields The glass is thicker at the top to resist the high wind Its designed to let the maximum light in and to keep heat out Sun screen (inside face) is useless against infrared from the hot desert sun so the inner planis coated with a thin layer of silver that keeps the heat rays out.V. The metal coating deflects U.
Façade Maintenance • • The tower's primary window washing and facade maintenance system consists of three permanently-installed. it will take 36 workers three to four months to clean the entire exterior facade . track-mounted. telescopic building maintenance machines located in internal "garage" positions on uppermost levels.
These elevators mark the highest installation in any building and have been developed by Otis. 57 elevators and eight escalators to streamline the needs of the residents and visitors to commute within the tower. • . builders of Burj Dubai ensure a speedy journey from the ground to the 160th floor.Elevators • With an „intelligent elevator installation‟ mechanism.
9 meters. • .Elevators • The main service elevator that is positioned in the central core of Burj Dubai has the world‟s highest elevator rise at 504 metres It moves at a speed of 9 metres per second and also has the world‟s longest travelling distance for an elevator. The lift to the spire has the world‟s highest landing at 636.
The sky lobbies are located on level 43. office staff will change from an express elevator to a local elevator which stops at each floor within a certain segment of the building.Elevators • Elevators are placed into different zones. Each elevator zone serves different audiences. The sky lobby is an intermediate floor where residents. 76 and 123 and will include a lounge area. maximizing the efficiency and saving time. guests. • .
pdf.wordpress.Burj Dubai Documentary Movie – Discovery Channel Mega builders Extreme Elevation Burj Dubai .files.com/2008/0 6/som_tallest.ctbuh.org/archives/2006/ Nov-2006/F-Burj. Documentary Movie – National Geographic Channel .structuremag.org/Portals/0/Repository/P 2_Baker.1ce602c3-272d-4b2a-acc3 http://www.Dubai-Tower-Irwin-etal.REFRENCES: http://cantilever. http://www.
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