A. The Birth Cry 1.Birth Cry-marks the beginning of vocalization 2.Birth cry is physiological.

It serves two purposes: a.To supply the blood with sufficient oxygen. b.To inflate the lungs 3.Birth cry is not a true precursor of speech.

B.Changes and Development During the first 24 hours after birth,the infants cry may take on different meanings according to the pitch, intensity and continuity of the cry C.Stimulation of Cries 1. Stimuli which arouse the infants cries comes from: a. Environment b. Physiological condition 1)Hunger 2)Pain or discomfort 3)Fatigue or lack of exercise 4)Wet diapers 5)Vomiting

D. Bodily Accompaniments of crying 1. squirms 2. Kicks 3. Flexes and extends arms,legs,fingers,and toes 4. Rolls body and turns head from side to side E. Amount of Crying How much the newborn cries is an individual matter. F. Explosive sounds 1. explosive sounds-are another type of vocalization which are commonly referred to as ‘coos’,’grunts’ and ‘gurgles’.

G. Other sounds 1. Sneezing- healthy infant sneezes several times a day and thus clears his nose of any foreign matter. 2. Yawning 3. Whining-to cry in or utter a high pitch 4. Hiccupping- a sudden spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm and audible closing of the glottis[an opening between the vocal cords in the throat which controls the modulation of speech sounds]

A. The Different Sensitivities of the Newborn Are: 1. Sight. At birth, the retina has not reached its mature development. It is small. The cones in the fovea are short and ill-defined. At 30 to 32 hours after birth, the papillary reflex is well established. OPTIC NYSTAGMUS- It is the ability to follow moving objects and then move the eyes backward in the opposite direction, comes several hours after birth, It has not been experimentally proven if infants can or cannot see colors. 2. Hearing. Scientists have no agreement as to whether or not infants respond to sound stimuli by auditory sensations immediately after birth. Some infants are totally deaf for several days, due to the stoppage of the middle ear with amniotic fluid.

3. Taste. The newborn infant as a highly developed sense of taste. Sweet stimuli have positive reactions in the form of sucking, but salt, sour and bitter stimuli have negative reactions in the form of discomfort 4. Smell- Sense of smell is well-developed at birth. When something is brought near him, the infant responds to it. 5. Skin Sensitivities- The skin sensations of touch, pressure temperature and pain are present at birth. 6. Organic sensitivities. The organic sensations of hunger and thirst are not specifically developed at birth.

Emotions of the Newborn Three Distinct Emotional Reactions That Occur Shortly After Birth(According to Watson) Are: Fear Rage Love According to Bakwin, There are Two Emotional Responses That the Newborn Is Equipped With: Pleasant or positive Unpleasant or negative

Consciousness of the Newborn It is difficult to guess from the infants behavior as to what it goes on his mind and what he perceives during the first days of birth James [1890] attempted to describe the infants consciousness and he stated ‘baby, assailed by eyes, ears, nose, skin, and entrails all at once, feels it all as one great, blooming, buzzing, confusion’. Conditioning in the newborn Conditioning- is the process where there is a transfer of response from an original to a substitute stimulus. In the case of feeding reactions, conditioning can take place during infancy. In the case of other reactions and situations, there has been no conclusive evidence that infants can be conditioned. Whether the emotions of the newborn can be conditioned, has not yet been investigated.

Beginnings of Personality Differences in Personality Are Apparent Shortly After Birth. Differences Mey Be Partly Due to: Age Circumstances of delivery Health conditions B. Shirley [1933] states that a ‘nucleus of personality exists at birth and this nucleus persists and grows and determines to a certain degree the relative importance of the various traits. Some change is doubtless wrought by environmental factors, but this change is limited by the limitations of the original personality nucleus’.