CHITIN

Made by : Dushyant kumar Bsa-08-613
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Introduction

Chitin  (C8H13O5N)n is most important natural polysaccharide that found in the exoskeleton of insects,crustaceans shells or in cell walls fungi.
The term chitin comes from Greek; it means that “envelope”

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 Chitin is a polysaccharide; it is synthesized

 from units of N-acetyl-D-glucos-2-amine.

Chitin may therefore be described as  cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer substituted with an  acetylamine group.
(similar to the linkages between glucose units forming cellulose).

 These units form covalent β-1,4 linkages

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 each monomer substituted with an acetyl

amine group. This allows for increased  hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength
Off-white, innocuous, flavourless

semitransparent and amorphous solid. Insoluble in water, dilute acid.

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In many respects,chitin plays an analogous role to collagen in the higher animals and cellulose in terrestrial plants. Collagen

Cellulose

Chitin

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In its unmodified form, chitin is

translucent, pliable, resilient and quite tough. In arthropods, however, it is often modified, becoming embedded in a hardened proteinaceous matrix, which forms much of the exoskeleton. In its pure form it is leathery, but when encrusted in calcium carbonate it becomes much harder.
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Depending upon its crystalline structure ,chitin exists in several forms with each their specific properties.Three of these forms are α , β and γ-chitin.

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 α -Chitin is extracted from shrimp or crab shells and has an anti

parallel structure with strong intermolecular hydrogen bridge.

 β-Chitin is extracted from squid or loligo pens and exhibit weaker

intermolecular hydrogen bonding due to parallel arrangement of the polymer chains.

 γ -Chitin has limited source and intermediate hydrogen bonding.

Utilazation of the chitin is very difficult , because of its insolubility in water and many commercial solvents.

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Uses
 Industrial :  water purification,  acts as a binder in dyes, fabrics, and adhesives  Processes to size and strengthen paper employ

chitin.
 Medicine:  flexible and strong material make it favorable

as surgical thread.  a role in a possible pathway in human allergic disease.
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 Chitin have anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties

that have led to them being used as wound dressings, surgical sutures and in cataract surgery and Periodontal disease and burns treatment. Agriculture  a good inductor for defense mechanisms in plants.  tested as a fertilizer that can help plants develop.

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 healthyimmune responses, and have a much

better yield and life expectancy.       Cosmetics:  Chitin and chitosan are non-toxic and nonallergenic which means that the body won't reject them as foreign invaders; hence they can be used in the production of emulsifiers, anti-static agents and emollients to extend the cosmetic product shelf life.

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 Food Industry  Chitin can be used to recover proteins from

food processing wastes to be used in animal food production. Mycrocrystalline Chitin (MCC) has been used as a thickening/gelling agent in the binding, stabilising and texturing of food.  

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T HA N K

YO U

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