• Meta-ethics:- about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values may be determined. • Normative ethics:- about the practical means of determining a moral course of action; • Applied ethics:- about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations. • Descriptive ethics:-also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality;

Importance of Ethics • Satisfying Basic Human Needs: Being fair. Infosys. • Uniting People and Leadership: An organization driven by values is revered by its employees also. . Every employee desires to be such himself and to work for an organization that is fair and ethical in its practices. honest and ethical is one the basic human needs. They are the common thread that brings the employees and the decision makers on a common platform. for example is perceived as an organization for good corporate governance and social responsibility initiatives. This goes a long way in aligning behaviors within the organization towards achievement of one common goal or mission. • Creating Credibility: An organization that is believed to be driven by moral values is respected in the society even by those who may have no information about the working and the businesses or an organization. This perception is held far and wide even by those who do not even know what business the organization is into.

The same company’s Tata NANO car was predicted as a failure. Lawyers and public interest litigations may not help a great deal but ethics can. The law machinery is often found acting as a mute spectator. one of the largest business conglomerates in India was seen on the verge of decline at the beginning of 1990’s.Contd…. and failed to do well but the same is picking up fast now. Technology. for example is growing at such a fast pace that the by the time law comes up with a regulation we have a newer technology with new threats replacing the older one. The same holds true for organizations. though in the short run they may seem to lose money. unable to save the society and the environment. • Securing the Society: Often ethics succeeds law in safeguarding the society. For example an organization that does not value competition will be fierce in its operations aiming to wipe out its competitors and establish a monopoly in the market. • Long Term Gains: Organizations guided by ethics and values are profitable in the long run. Decisions are driven by values. which soon turned out to be otherwise. . Tata group. • Improving Decision Making: A man’s destiny is the sum total of all the decisions that he/she takes in course of his life.

curricular activities. • But why is it that this topic ethics which addresses questions about morality that is concept such as good and bad. friends. Right from early childhood competitions winning. regardless of the paths chosen by them are the scene stealers in today’s world.right or wrong is being inculcated in a child through various ways may be value education classes or through other co. . where slow and steady no more wins the race.Ethics as a formal subject in high schools • The word ethics is not just a mere word in the dictionary written before the word ethnic. But such classes are never given enough importance but are considered a fun activity class like art and craft or music for instance. unlike math or science. justice and virtue never taken seriously by educators. instead fasts and smarts. but it has some real significance. right and wrong. losing. habits –good or bad. noble and ignoble.

But the chap lacked ethics and his faith in it. Had it been a formal subject in high school he would be sure that the people around him do know what is right and what is wrong. ethics as a subject than they would grow into a matured. tolerant and moral enough good professionals or global citizens. when a Chartered Accountant no matter how best he is in his field if he lacks ethics in him that would only lead to forged balance sheets. • • . • • • • • • At a school level. And not someone who puts individual interest above group responsibility. Or a sales executive just as shown in the recent movie Rocket Singh.the salesman doesn’t need to think twice before hacking into his own company’s databases. what is fair and what is unfair.Contd…. Bullying schoolmates Making obscene video-clips Gunfire or hitting schoolmates If children endure at school. Instead he could have just confronted his bosses. tactful. (to take revenge). At company level. a child unaware of ethics can do various harmful things such as: Cheating during exams.

Contd…. • My friends often tease me to be the Aristotle or Socrates of modern world. considering the greater good love for mankind. should I or should I not fight a war killing thousands?. if ethics is made a formal subject in high school it would not only give the students an idea about its principal areas and including them in their daily life but would also give them an insight into the study of philosophy which rarely is considered a subject equivalent to Commerce or Sciences after high school. but I guess I am just like an old wine in a new bottle. • But sometimes just sometimes. then you question your ethics as to should I or should not? Or when for the president of a country like India which has observed peaceful relations with even its enemies. As I feel that an attempt of sharing your vada pau with that little boy at least once in a lifetime would be prized for both the parties. when you are eating vada pau on the street and a poor kid comes and asks you for one. Or for the president talks with the opponent might minimize the intensity of the war. When questions like this arise it is difficult to stay ethical but as one of the philosophers’ John Stuart Mill trumpets the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number can be observed according to my point of view. . • Additionally.

Does not address the issue of some pleasures and pains that cannot or should not be measured—such as human life or human suffering. The drawbacks Cannot assign a quantitative measure to all pleasures and pains. Suggests the ends justify the means. often. What if the harm is to your mother rather than a stranger? Assumes outcomes always can be determined before an action is taken—yet. does not permit an individual to put his or her interests or relationships first. quantitative method for making moral decisions. .• • • • • • • • • The pros and cons of ethics The good things Considers the pleasure and pain of every individual affected by an action. Considers everyone to be equal. Attempts to provide an objective. Would lying or cheating be considered ethical if the end result is positive? Emphasizes the amount of pain an action causes—not to whom. outcomes are unpredictable.

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