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Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) Facilities

09NA1010 09NA3011 P Pratheek Kumar D Sandeep

What is FLNG?
▪ Refers to water-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) operations employing technologies designed to enable the development of offshore natural gas resources ▪ FLNG is a revolutionary technology that allows access to offshore gas fields that would otherwise be too costly or difficult to develop

What is FLNG?

and is due to be completed by around 2017 ... ▪ No FLNG facilities currently exist ▪ A facility is in development by Royal Dutch Shell.FLNG in current scenario.

liquefy. the FLNG facility will theoretically produce.FLNG Working Principle ▪ Floating above an offshore natural gas field. store and transfer LNG (and potentially LPG and condensate) at sea before carriers ship it directly to markets .

LPG. it will be processed to produce natural gas. and natural gas condensate .FLNG Working ▪ The FLNG facility will be moored directly above the natural gas field ▪ It will route gas from the field to the facility via risers ▪ When the gas reaches the facility.

FLNG – Riser Mechanism .

and liquefied through freezing. before being stored in the hull ▪ Ocean-going carriers will offload the LNG. for delivery to markets worldwide .FLNG Working ▪ The processed feed gas will be treated to remove impurities. as well as the other liquid by-products.

FLNG Working .

FLNG Construction .

before transferring the gas for delivery .Conventional method – LNG Production ▪ The conventional alternative to this would be to pump gas through pipelines to a shore based facility for liquefaction.

Conventional method .

Underwater pipelines .

pipeline engineers have to take into account the sub-zero temperatures of the ocean floor and stormiest waters and strongest currents . the more expensive and complex the pipeline construction ▪ Beyond its topography.Underwater pipelines ▪ One of the major hurdles for laying undersea pipelines is the topography and distance ▪ The more rough and rocky the underwater terrain is.

Advantages/Uses of FLNG ▪ Natural gas is the cleanest-burning fossil fuel ▪ It is also abundant and affordable and may be able to meet world energy needs by realising the potential of otherwise unviable gas reserves ▪ FLNG technology also provides a number of environmental and economic advantages .

there is no need to lay long pipelines all the way to the shore ▪ There is also no requirement for compression units to pump the gas to shore.Environmental ▪ Because all processing is done at the gas field. all of which significantly reduce the project's environmental footprint . dredging and jetty construction or the onshore construction of an LNG processing plant.Advantages .

Advantages .Environmental ▪ Avoiding construction also helps preserve marine and coastal environments ▪ Additionally. environmental disturbance would be minimised during the later decommissioning of the facility. because it could be disconnected easily and removed before being refurbished and re-deployed elsewhere .

FLNG makes LNG production economically viable ▪ As a result.Advantages . such as those off the coast of East Africa .Economic ▪ Where pumping gas to shore can be expensive. it will open up new business opportunities for countries to develop offshore gas fields that would otherwise remain stranded.

Challenges associated with FLNG ▪ Moving LNG production to an offshore setting presents a demanding set of challenges ▪ In terms of the design and construction of the FLNG facility. whilst maintaining the utmost levels of safety and giving increased flexibility to LNG production . every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size.

Challenges associated with FLNG ▪ Once a facility is in operation. wave motion will present another major challenge ▪ LNG containment systems need to be capable of withstanding the damage that can occur when the sea’s wave and current motions cause sloshing in the partly filled tanks .

which must be capable of withstanding – and even reducing – the impact of waves . waves and currents in the open seas ▪ Many solutions to reduce the effect of motion and weather are again to be found in the design.Challenges associated with FLNG ▪ Product transfers also need to deal with the effects of winds.

leveraging and adapting technologies that are currently applied to offshore oil production or onshore liquefaction . technological development has been mainly evolutionary rather than revolutionary... ▪ In this area.Further Advancements.

loading arms have been adapted for different sea/ocean conditions as: ▪ Traditional LNG loading arms in open water ▪ Hose-based solutions for both side-by-side transfers in calmer seas ▪ Tandem transfers in rougher conditions .Further Advancements... For example.

Tandem Loading .

. for example. the operating plant. ▪ The cold of the ocean depths can also be utilized by pumping water to help cool the gas. avoiding the need to for extra equipment on deck ▪ The Components of the facility can be stacked vertically to save space. can be placed above LNG storage tanks ▪ The sheer size of the full-scale facility could be used to withstand very high winds and giant waves ..Further Advancements.

000 tonnes of water. It will be the largest floating offshore facility in the world .SHELL ▪ The floating facility will chill natural gas produced at the field to –162°C. ▪ The Prelude FLNG facility will be 488m long.Prelude FLNG . shrinking its volume by 600 times so it can be shipped to customers in other parts of the world ▪ Ocean-going carriers will load the LNG as well as other liquid by-products (condensate and LPG) for delivery to market. 74m wide and will displace around 600.

SHELL ▪ The Prelude FLNG facility will be built at Samsung Heavy Industries’ Geoje Island ship yards in South Korea ▪ Once constructed. Western Australia.Prelude FLNG . approximately 475 kilometres north-northeast of Broome. . ▪ The facility will be moored and hooked up to the undersea infrastructure and the whole production system commissioned. the facility will be towed to its location.

Prelude FLNG .SHELL ▪ The Prelude FLNG facility has been designed to withstand the most powerful tropical cyclones (Category 5) ▪ It will remain moored at the location for around 25 years before needing to dock for inspection and overhaul ▪ In addition. it will be secured in place by one of the largest mooring systems in the world .

Conclusion ▪ FLNG technology provides an efficient solution for the development of remote offshore gas fields ▪ It can be more economic than a offshore production facility plus a pipeline and an onshore LNG plant .