Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

What is ADHD?
 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, hyperactivity, and inattention

 The behaviors associated with ADHD (inattention,impulsivity,hyperactivity) are all present in normal children. The disorder is only diagnosed when severity or frequency of these findings is outside the normal range

ADHD appears in children before 4 years old but signs are often missed until the child attends school. ADHD occurs two to four times more commonly in boys than girls (male to female ratio 4:1 for the predominantly hyperactive type vs. 2:1 for the predominantly inattentive type)

What is the cause of ADHD?
Biological Hypothesis Explanation of hyperactivity suggested that this particular cluster of problems was caused by some form of Minimal brain damage or dysfunction

Genetic Factors Researchers believe that a large majority of ADHD arises from a combination of various genes,therefore the disorder is highly heritable.

Environmental factors
Use of prescription or illicit drugs,alcohol and nicotine of the mother during pregnancy can contribute to ADHD. Over processing foods,Allergy like intolerance to ceratin foods,Pollutants might also be causative

Social Factors Relationships with other have a profound effect on attention and selfregulatory abilities.

Among the potential answers to this question… NO SINGLE and UNQUESTIONABLE SOLUTION HAS BEEN DISCOVERED…

What are the symptoms of ADHD?
The major symptoms are:
 Inattention  Hyperactivity  Impulsivity

Inattention
Six or more of the ff. symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months an maladaptive
►Often fails to give close attention to details

or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities ►Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities ►Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.

►Often does not follow through on

instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace. ►Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities. ►Avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort.

►Often loses things necessary for tasks or

activities.
►Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. ►Often forgetful in daily activities.

Hyperactivity
►Often fidgets with his/her hands or feet or

squirms in his/her seat ►Often leaves his/her seat in the classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected. ►Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate.

►often has difficulty playing or engaging in

leisure activities quietly.
►Often talks excessively. ►More active than expected for age.

Impulsivity
►Often blurts out answers before questions

have been completed.
►Has difficulty awaiting his/her turn. ►Often interrupts or intrudes on others.

Symptoms that cause present difficulties

were present before 7 years of age and are present in two or more settings (at school/work at home). There must be clear evidence of significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. And the symptoms are not entirely caused by another severe physical disorder

►The formal diagnosis is made by a

qualified professional in the field based on a set number of criteria. ►Including comprehensive medical, developmental, educational, and psychosocial evaluations. ►Interviewing parents and child.

Medications
Medications provide the child with the ability to respond to other forms of therapy.
►Methylphenidate (Ritalin) ►Anti-depressants if the child is unable to

tolerate the drugs.

Behavioral Treatment
Conducted by a mental-health professional.
►Teaching Children Coping skills. ►Social Skills Training. ►Parent Training.

Prognosis
Research supports the clinical observation that as many as 50% of children with ADHD will have symptoms persist into adulthood.

Current areas of concern are:
► Education: Follow-up studies of children with

ADHD growing into adolescence showed impairment of academic success. ► Employment: Those with ADHD did have occupations with a lower "job status.“ ► Socialization issues: In studies that followed children with ADHD into adulthood, between 12%-23% have socialization problems

►Substance abuse:

The largest study to date supports other smaller studies that indicate ADHD patients who consistently take their medication have twice the likelihood not to utilize drugs or excessive alcohol. more likely to have motor-vehicle accidents

►Teens with ADHD are two to four times

That’s all for ADHD.. Questions or Clarifications?? Are you guys Learning??
Neko-chan

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