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# Data Communication & Networks Lecture 3 Physical Layer

Engr. Mazhar Islam Department of IT (Telecom) Hazara University Mansehra

QUIZ # 1

Draw a hybrid topology with a star backbone and three ring networks What is the difference between a port address, a logical address and a physical address.

Data Communication & Networks, Spring 2013

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**Physical Layer Topics to Cover
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Signals Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Multiplexing Transmission Media

Data Communication & Networks, Spring 2013

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Note

To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals.

Data Communication & Networks, Spring 2013

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The term analog data refers to information that is continuous.Analog & Digital Data can be analog or digital. Analog data take on continuous values. Data Communication & Networks. digital data refers to information that has discrete states. Digital data take on discrete values. Spring 2013 5 .

Spring 2013 6 . Digital data have discrete states and take discrete values.Note Data can be analog or digital. Data Communication & Networks. Analog data are continuous and take continuous values.

Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range. Spring 2013 7 .Note Signals can be analog or digital. digital signals can have only a limited number of values. Data Communication & Networks.

Spring 2013 8 .Analog Vs Digital Data Communication & Networks.

Spring 2013 9 . we commonly use periodic analog signals and non periodic digital signals. Data Communication & Networks.Note In data Communication.

Spring 2013 10 .Periodic Analog Signals (Sine Wave) Data Communication & Networks.

Note The bandwidth of a composite signal is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies contained in that signal. Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 11 .

Bandwidth Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 12 .

Digital Signals Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 13 .

For example. A digital signal can have more than two levels. a 1 can be encoded as a positive voltage and a 0 as zero voltage. we can send more than 1 bit for each level. information can also be represented by a digital signal. Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 14 . In this case.Digital Signals In addition to being represented by an analog signal.

Spring 2013 15 .Digital Signal Data Communication & Networks.

) Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 16 .Bit Rate & Bit Interval (contd.

Bit interval = 1/ 2000 s = 0. What is the duration of each bit (bit interval) Solution The bit interval is the inverse of the bit rate. Spring 2013 17 .000500 s = 0.000500 x 106 ms = 500 ms Data Communication & Networks.Bit Interval and Bit Rate Example A digital signal has a bit rate of 2000 bps.

Spring 2013 18 . Data Communication & Networks.Note The bit rate and the bandwidth are proportional to each other.

Base Band Transmission Broadband Transmission Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 19 .

Spring 2013 20 .Low Pass & Band Pass Data Communication & Networks.

Transmission Impairments Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 21 .

which are not perfect.Transmission Imapairments Signals travel through transmission media. Three causes of impairment are attenuation. The imperfection causes signal impairment. Spring 2013 22 . and noise. This means that the signal at the beginning of the medium is not the same as the signal at the end of the medium. Data Communication & Networks. What is sent is not what is received. distortion.

Spring 2013 23 .Transmission Impairments Data Communication & Networks.

Spring 2013 24 .Transmission Impairments attenuation distortion noise Data Communication & Networks.

Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 25 .26 Suppose a signal travels through a transmission medium and its power is reduced to one-half. In this case.Example 3. the attenuation (loss of power) can be calculated as A loss of 3 dB (–3 dB) is equivalent to losing one-half the power. This means that P2 is (1/2)P1.

Spring 2013 26 . Solution We can calculate the power in the signal as Data Communication & Networks.29 Sometimes the decibel is used to measure signal power in milliwatts. In this case.Example 3. where Pm is the power in milliwatts. it is referred to as dBm and is calculated as dBm = 10 log10 Pm . Calculate the power of a signal with dBm = −30.

Data Rate Limits Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 27 .

Data rate depends on three factors: 1. Spring 2013 28 . in bits per second. The level of the signals we use 3.Data Rate Limits A very important consideration in data communications is how fast we can send data. The bandwidth available 2. over a channel. The quality of the channel (the level of noise) Data Communication & Networks.

Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate Defines theoretical maximum bit rate for Noiseless Channel: Bit Rate=2 X Bandwidth X log2L Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 29 .

Note Increasing the levels of a signal may reduce the reliability of the system. Spring 2013 30 . Data Communication & Networks.

The maximum bit rate can be calculated as Bit Rate = 2 3000 log2 2 = 6000 bps Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 31 .Example Consider a noiseless channel with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz transmitting a signal with two signal levels.

The maximum bit rate can be calculated as: Bit Rate = 2 x 3000 x log2 4 = 12. transmitting a signal with four signal levels (for each level.000 bps Data Communication & Networks.Example 8 Consider the same noiseless channel. we send two bits). Spring 2013 32 .

Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity Defines theoretical maximum bit rate for Noisy Channel: Capacity=Bandwidth X log2(1+SNR) Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 33 .

In other words. the noise is so strong that the signal is faint. Spring 2013 34 . For this channel the capacity is calculated as C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = B log2 (1 + 0) = B log2 (1) = B 0 = 0 Data Communication & Networks.Example Consider an extremely noisy channel in which the value of the signal-to-noise ratio is almost zero.

860 bps Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 35 . For this channel the capacity is calculated as C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 3000 log2 (1 + 3162) = 3000 log2 (3163) C = 3000 11.62 = 34.Example We can calculate the theoretical highest bit rate of a regular telephone line. The signal-to-noise ratio is usually 3162. A telephone line normally has a bandwidth of 4KHz.

The SNR for this channel is 63. Spring 2013 36 .Example We have a channel with a 1 MHz bandwidth. what is the appropriate bit rate and signal level? Solution First. we use the Shannon formula to find our upper limit. C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 106 log2 (1 + 63) = 106 log2 (64) = 6 Mbps Then we use the Nyquist formula to find the number of signal levels. 6 Mbps = 2 1 MHz log2 L L = 8 Data Communication & Networks.

Spring 2013 37 . the Nyquist formula tells us how many signal levels we need.Note The Shannon capacity gives us the upper limit. Data Communication & Networks.

Spring 2013 38 .Performance One important issue in networking is the performance of the network—how good is it? We discuss quality of service. in greater detail in Chapter 24. Data Communication & Networks. an overall measurement of network performance. we introduce terms that we need for future chapters. In this section.

Performance Bandwidth Throughput Latency (Delay) Bandwidth-Delay Product Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 39 .

Throughput Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 40 .

Propagation Time Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 41 .

Note The bandwidth-delay product defines the number of bits that can fill the link. Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 42 .

Bandwidth Delay Product Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 43 .

Data Communication & Networks. Spring 2013 44 .