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HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access

For internal use 1 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Presentation / Author / Date

Agenda
-> Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics, New Features Architectural Changes, Impact on RAN Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling HSDPA Mobility

What is HSDPA ?
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a packet swithed DL data service in WCDMA with data rate up to 10Mbps over a 5MHz Bandwidth 3GPP Rel5 specifications Builds on distributed architecture that gives Node-B more control when to transmit, to which terminal to transmit and also to handle the retransmission Nokia RAN05 feature Improvements and new functionalities coming in RAN05.1 and in RAN06

Why HSDPA? Improved • cell throughput • maximum user throughput • round trip time • spectral efficiency .

1 Mbps 14.3 Mbps Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 15 codes.0 Mbps 26.6 Mbps 13.0 Mbps Max RLC data rate 1.8 Mbps 3.HSDPA Peak Data Rates # of codes 5 codes 5 codes 10 codes 15 codes 15 codes Modulation QPSK 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM Max L1 data rate 1. MIMO 15 codes.2 Mbps 10.6 Mbps 7.36 Mbps 6.72 Mbps 9.6 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 3GPP R7 3GPP R7 . MIMO? 16-QAM 64-QAM 28.

HSDPA TX-power Power measurements from the Node-B to the RNC Total transmitted carrier power Max power Power control head-room PtxTarget HSDPA NRT NEW non-HSDPA power measurements Controllable power DCH NRT DCH RT In addition to power also code resource shared! Non-controllable power Common channels .

New Features Architectural Changes. Impact on RAN Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling HSDPA Mobility .Agenda Introduction -> General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics.

HSDPA key characteristics (1) Included in HSDPA AMC Enhanced in HSDPA Excluded from HSDPA Multi-code operation SHO H-ARQ Basic WCDMA Technology TTI = 2 ms PC Variable SF Advanced PS .

HSDPA key characteristics (2) The physical layer retransmission (ARQ function) • R’99: RNC-based ARQ • HSDPA: Node-B based fast H-ARQ Packet scheduling • R’99: RNC-based • HSDPA: NodeB-based Power control • R’99: Fast PC • HSDPA: Link adaptation function and AMC (adaptive modulation and coding) Good spectral efficiency • HSDPA: up to 15 multi-codes in parallel. .

Downlink Code Allocation •HSDPA with 5 codes allocated at cell MAC-hs start-up when HSDPA is enabled •Code allocation is dynamic in future releases when more than 5 codes are allocated SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8 SF = 16 SF = 32 SF = 64 SF = 128 SF = 256 Codes for 5 HS-PDSCH's Code for one HS-SCCH Codes for the cell common channels •166 codes @ SF=256 available for the associated DCHs and non-HSDPA uses .

New features Shared channel transmission • HS-DSCH (high speed downlink shared channel) • Supports up to 15 codes parallel • Fixed spreading factor (16) • Works in parallel to DCH (1/2) Higher-order modulation • QPSK • 16-QAM Short transmission time interval (TTI) • Dynamic channel code allocation interval of 2 ms .

New features Fast link adaptation • Adjusts transmission parameters – not TX power! • Users near Node B: QPSK  16-QAM (for example) (2/2) Fast scheduling • Allocates the use of shared channel to UEs with best radio conditions at certain time moment (Multi User Diversity) • Scheduling is done at Node-B instead of RNC Fast hybrid automatic-repeat-request (HARQ) • Request and retransmit missing data (UE  Node-B) • Combine information from original transmission (Soft Combining) • Signalling with ACKs and NACKs .

HSDPA Operating Prinicple .

R99-DCH BTS Tx pwr HSDPA . Ack/Nack. TPC Data #channelisation Codes per UE #channelisation Codes per UE Throughput Throughput is “maintained” 8 6 4 1 2 Only 1 variable SF code used per user 0-15 codes of SF16 used based on channel quality and UE/network capability Throughput varies according to channel quality .General Principle HSDPA BTS Tx pwr Tx power varies according to channel quality (BLER) Throughput Tx power for HSDPA is constant Channel quality (CQI.

Impact on RAN Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling HSDPA Mobility . New Features -> Architectural Changes.Agenda Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics.

RLC and MAC-d layers are unchanged from the Release '99 and Release 4 architecture The new functionalities of hybrid ARQ and scheduling/priority handling are included in the MAC layer • In the UTRAN side. is introduced for HSDPA – It is controlled by the MAC-hs. the HS-DSCH. RNC Node B PDCP RRM AC PS LC RM HC RLC MAC O&M MAC-hs FP Transport FP Transport WCDMA L1 Affected by HSDPA Not affected by HSDPA New entity for HSDPA Iub . which is located in the BTS • A new type of transport channel. these functions are included in a new entity called MAC-hs.Key Architectural Change The PDCP.

HSDPA Protocol Architecture
New MAC entity, MAC-hs added to the Node B RNC still retains the RLC functionalities

UE NAS RLC MAC-d MAC-hs WCDMA L1

Node B

SRNC RLC MAC-d FRAME PROTOCOL TRANSPORT

Iu

MAC-hs WCDMA L1

FRAME PROTOCOL TRANSPORT

Uu

Iub/Iur

HSDPA user plane

HSDPA Protocol Stack incl. PS Core NW
Uu Iub SRNC PDCP RLC Node B MAC -hs HS-DSCH FP AAL2 WCDMA L1 WCDMA L1 ATM PHY MAC -d HS-DSCH FP AAL2 ATM PHY IP AAL5 ATM PHY IP AAL5 ATM PHY GTP -U UDP Iu-PS

UE User IP data PDCP RLC MAC -d MAC -hs

CN User IP data GTP -U UDP

HSDPA impact on RAN
Additional intelligence (HSDPA MAC – MAC hs) is installed at the NodeB.
Retransmission controlled by the NodeB leads to faster execution and shorter delay in case of retransmissions. The Iub interface (NodeB-RNC) requires a flow control mechanism to ensure that NodeB buffers are used properly and there is no buffer overflow.
Packet Packet
RLC ACK/NACK L1 ACK/NACK

R’99 DCH / DSCH

R’5 HS-DSCH

Coding & Modulation selection (16QAM as new modulation) ARQ Retransmissions Handling Uplink Feedback Decoding Flow Control towards SRNC .New Node B functionality for HSDPA RNC Node B Terminals ARQ & Coding ACK/NACK & Feedback Decoding Packets Scheduler & Buffer Flow Control New Node B functions: Scheduler: Terminal scheduling.

New terminal functionality for HSDPA RNC Node B Terminal ARQ Decoding Soft Buffer & Combining ACK/NACK & Feedback Generation Packets Flow Control New terminal functions: 16 QAM demodulation ARQ Retransmissions Handling Soft buffer & combining Fast Uplink Feedback Generation & encoding Initial HSDPA terminals are data cards without voice capability .

Sub frame Structure WCDMA : 10ms frame (15 slots) HSDPA: 2ms (3slots) -> Subframe slot#0 slot#1 slot#2 HSDPA subframe (2 ms) .

Quick Snapshot: Changes Introduced by HSDPA Shorter radio frame ( 2ms TTI) Use of 16QAM modulation in addition to QPSK modulation Code multiplexing combined with time multiplexing New Channels in DL and UL Use of hybrid automatic-repeat-request (HARQ) MAC-hs functionality in Node-B .

Agenda Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics. Impact on RAN -> Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle Cell Change order . New Features Architectural Changes.

14.Link adaptation: Modulation Q 1011 10 00 1010 I 1110 11 01 1111 1101 0101 0111 1100 0100 0110 1000 0000 0010 I 1001 Q 0001 0011 QPSK 2 bits / symbol = 480 kbit/s/HS-PDSCH = max. 7.4 Mbit/s .2 Mbit/s 16QAM 4 bits / symbol = 960 kbps/HS-PDSCH = max.

Fast Link Adaptation in HSDPA 16 C/I received by UE 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 0 20 Instantaneous EsNo [dB] C/I varies with fading 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 16QAM3/4 16QAM2/4 QPSK3/4 QPSK2/4 QPSK1/4 Time [number of TTIs] Link adaptation mode BTS adjusts link adaptation mode with a few ms delay based on channel quality reports from the UE .

New Features Architectural Changes. Impact on RAN Link Adaptation -> HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling HSDPA Mobility .Agenda Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics.

modulation.g. 2 HS-PDSCH: High speed physical downlink shared channel.) . for a single user in case of no code multiplexing. e.g. RLC and TCP ACKs. HTTP requests etc. 5 Associated DPCH DL: DCH channel used to transmit power control information for the UL associated DCH and other potentially needed signalling (e. 3 HS-DPCCH: High speed dedicated physical control channel. 1 HS-SCCH per cell in case of no code multiplexing. Used by the UE to send ACK / NACK and CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) 4 Associated DPCH UL: DCH channel used to send UL user data. bearer reconfgurations etc. It indicates the recipient UE Id.New Channels on Air-Interface introduced for HSDPA UE HS-SCCH per cell Node-B 1 2 3 4 5 HS-PDSCH HS-DPCCH per user Associated DPCH UL: 1 DPDCH & 1 DPCCH Associated DPCH DL: 1 DPDCH & 1 DPCCH 1 HS-SCCH: High speed shared control channel. number of codes. Carries a variable amount of user data. relevant HARQ info.

HSDPA introduces new transport channel. which makes efficient use of radio resources and takes into account bursty packet data HS-DSCH shares multiple codes among several users .HSDPA Channels – Transport Channel HS-DSCH WCDMA System normally operates on DCH which brings maximum system performance with continuous data. HS-DSCH.

Time Multiplexing in HSDPA .

HSDPA Physical Channels (1/4) .

etc. power control command for UL HS-DPCCH. as well as multiplexing of different users (15 – maximum capability. • HS-PDSCH has always DL DPCH associated (signal radio bearer for layer 3 signaling. TTI = 10/20/40/80 ms).HSDPA channels – Physical Channel (2/4) HS-PDSCH (High Speed DL Shared Channel) • Carries the user data in the DL. interleaving period = 2 ms (In R’99. lower encoding redundancy leading to high peak data rates.) . • TTI (Transmission Time Interval). depends on the UE category: 5/10/15). • Higher modulation scheme (16QAM). support multi-code transmission. • Users check the information on the HS-SCCH to determine which HSDSCH codes to despread. • Fixed SF (16).

indication if QPSK or 16QAM modulation is used on HS-DSCH. • The HS-SCCH uses SF 128.physical channels (3/4) HS-SCCH (High Speed Shared Control Channel) • Carries the information needed for HS-DSCH demodulation • If there is no data on HS-DSCH. – Second part (next two slots) contains CRC (cyclic redundancy check) for checking HS-SCCH. • Each HS-SCCH block has a three–slot duration divided into 2 functional parts: – First part (first slot) carries the time-crucial information needed to start the demudaltion process in due time: HS-DSCH codes. accomodating 40 bits per slot. redundancy version. ARQ process number. . HS-SCCH is not assigned.HSDPA Channels.

physical channels (4/4) HS-DPCCH (UL High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel) • Carries ACK/NACK information for the L1 retransmissions. . • Carries CQI (DL Channel Quality Indicator) to be used by NodeB scheduler to determine to which terminal to transmit and at which rate. feedback method is not easy to be standardized due to differences in the terminals.HSDPA Channels . • Intensively discussed in the 3GPP forum.

TS25. “ CQI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 TBS 137 173 233 317 377 461 650 792 931 1262 1483 1742 2279 2583 3319 3565 4189 4664 5287 5887 6554 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 codes 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 M QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM D (dB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 .CQI Reporting from UE UE should report the CQI for which the BLER probability would not exceed 10% on HS-DSCH in measured condition (PCPICH + G). CQI reporting can have UE specific differences.214 says : “Based on an unrestricted observation interval. Algorithm to calculate CQI value is not specified by 3GPP. number of HS-PDSCH codes and modulation corresponding to the reported or lower CQI value could be received in a 3-slot reference period ending 1 slot before the start of the first slot in which the reported CQI value is transmitted and for which the transport block error probability would not exceed 0. the UE shall report the highest tabulated CQI value for which a single HS-DSCH sub-frame formatted with the transport block size.1.

New Features Architectural Changes.Agenda Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics. Impact on RAN Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure -> HARQ Principle HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling HSDPA Mobility .

Stop and Wait Protocol (SAW) Transmission of new blocks is stopped until and ACK/NACK is received • Minimal protocol overhead (no sequence numbers needed) • Reduced storage requirements at UE • Problem: Channel is unused until ACK/NACK is received .

N Channel Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) .

requests can be done immediatly. If all data is correctly decoded. This way. Since. Retransmitted data entities are soft combined with the original transmission before message decoding. the H-ARQ mechanism resides in the NodeB (MAChs).H-ARQ principles (1) Fast H-ARQ algorithm rapidly requests the retransmission of missing data entities. H-ARQ requires some memory in the UE to buffer the soft information. the ACK message is sent on the associated UL channel (HS-DPCCH). Two strategies of H-ARQ: • IR (incremental redundancy) • CC (chase combining) . probability of successful combining is increased.

H-ARQ principles (2) The idea of the CC is to transmit the same packet again • Receiver combines these two copies prior to decding The idea of the IR is to transmit additional redundant information that is incrementally transmitted if the decoding fails on the first attempt. . • Full IR (inlcudes parity bits in every coded word) requires significant UE memory capabilities. • Causes increase of the effective coding gain with the number of retransmissions.

e. the so called SAW channels) HS-DSCH Physical Layer Category Number of HARQ Processes 2 2 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 6 NIR(in bits) 9600 14400 9600 12800 9600 11200 19200 22400 28800 28800 4800 4800 • A number of parallel HARQ processes are established at the same time to support the HARQ protocol Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category7 Category8 Category9 Category10 Category 11 Category 12 • The number of HARQ processes is determined by MAChs as shown in table on the right • MAC-hs gets the HS-DSCH Physical Layer Category information in the NBAP: RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST message or the NBAP: RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE message .H-ARQ HARQ is one of the most important features in HSDPA concept to enhance the packet data transmission capability of WCDMA system It controls the packet retransmission on layer 1 level to reduce the retransmission delay There is one HARQ entity per UE in UTRAN side • Each HARQ entity consists of several HARQ processes (i.

Impact on RAN Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle -> HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling HSDPA Mobility . New Features Architectural Changes.Agenda Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics.

HSDPA Operating Prinicple .

4 Mbps RAN05 RAN05.6 Mbps 5.4 Mbps 3.7 Mbps 14.8 Mbps 7.2 Mbps 10.8 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 15 codes 1.2 Mbps 1.4 Mbps 7.2 Mbps 2.4 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 4.8 Mbps 10 codes 1.HSDPA Peak Bit Rates Coding rate Coding rate 1/4 QPSK 2/4 3/4 2/4 16QAM 3/4 4/4 5 codes 600 kbps 1.2 Mbps 9.8 Mbps 2.6 Mbps 4.1 .

) .8 Mbps 1.2 Mbps - (First one has smaller HARQ memory.6 Mbps capability expected initially UE Category 11 12 1/2 3/4 5/6 Modulation QPSK only QPSK only QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM Inter-TTI 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 Transport Block size 3630 3630 7298 7298 7298 14411 20251 27952 5 Codes 0.9 Mbps 1.0 Mbps 7/8 9 10 7.8 Mbps and 3.8 Mbps 3.2 Mbps 1. Equalizer. 2-Equalizer Theoretical peak bit rate up to 14 Mbps 1.1 Mbps 14.6 Mbps 10 Codes 15 Codes 10.UE categories 12 different UE categories Possible receiver types Rake.

Inter-TTI interval Inter-TTI interval: Number of sub frames between transmissions to a UE Data DTX DTX Data DTX Inter-TTI = 3 Data DTX Data DTX Data Inter-TTI = 2 .

A. DCH: 780 kbps No HSDPA HSDPA: 670 kbps DCH: 410 kbps HSDPA 16QAM RR scheduling HSDPA: 910 kbps DCH: 410 kbps HSDPA 16QAM PF scheduling . 21% Gain 5 codes assumed. 1090 kbps Pedestrian 43% Gain propagation channel. 780 kbps HSDPA: N.HSDPA Cell throughput Simulated cell 1320 kbps throughput with mixed HSDPA and Rel.99 traffic.

2nd TTI 3rd TTI 1st TTI . • All HARQ processes of UE are full and next transmission would be a new one. • BTS cannot receive Ack/Nack because of poor uplink quality.Packet Scheduling in HSDPA Reasons why UE sometimes cannot be scheduled: • Some UEs do not support reception in consecutive TTIs.

• Cell capacity is bad. Proportional Fair Resource (P-FR) • UE with best radio condition is chosen • On short time-scale. • UE in bad conditions has to be given more resources. • Not “fair” among queues on short or even medium time-scale. • Each UE gets same amount of resources. • Lots of UEs get zero throughput.Some Scheduler Types Round-Robin (RR) = Fair Resource (FR) • UE in front of queue is scheduled. similar fairness to Round-Robin. . different UEs get different resources. • Average throughput and cell capacity maximised.1 Maximum Throughput (M-TP) • The UE with the highest instantaneous throughput is chosen. • On medium time-scale. The throughput depends on its link conditions. • Used in RAS05 Fair Throughput (FT) • Each UE gets same throughput. • Implemented in RAN05. then moved to back of queue. • Simple.

1) Channel quality (CQI. Ack/Nack. Ack/Nack. TPC) Data TTI 1 TTI 2 TTI 3 TTI 4 Scheduled user UE2 USER 2 Es/N0 USER 1 Es/N0 .Proportional Fair Idea (RAS05. TPC) Data WBTS scheduling operates at 2ms rate and can utilize information on the instantanous channel conditions for each user UE1 Multi-user selection diversity (give shared channel to “best” user) Channel quality (CQI.

Agenda Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics. Impact on RAN Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling -> HSDPA Mobility . New Features Architectural Changes.

HSDPA mobility in RAS05 • Serving Cell Change switches the user from HS-DSCH to Cell_FACH then back to HSDSCH Cell A Service in HSDPA Switching to Cell_FACH within the SHO area Cell B UE on HSDSCH HS-DSCH coverage Throughput HSDPA HS-DSCH coverage DCH 128kbps or 384kbps according to parameter settings 64kbps 0 .

UE goes to cell_FACH in the current serving cell. in case of IFHO or ISHO the original DCH switching procedures are used •If the user was moved to Cell-FACH because of intra frequency handover no HSDPA user penalty timers are used on Cell-FACH.Details on Cell Change via cell-FACH •HSDPA Serving Cell Change via Cell-FACH feature is used only in intra frequency handover cases. the user will be immediately switched to a new HSDPA connection when there is a data volume request either from the UE or RNC •If the user was moved to Cell-FACH because of low throughput then the HSDPA user penalty timers are used on Cell-FACH •If the HSDPA user moves to non-HSDPA cell. . Possible cell reselection to best server happens in cell_FACH. the user in HO area will be moved to Cell-FACH. The user will be immediately switched to the DCH of the requested bit rate when there is a data volume request either from the UE or RNC (no need for first DCH0/0 DCH Initial bit rate DCH Final bit rate) In RAS05.

Scrambling code of the strongest cell in the measured set informed to UE.Improved HS-DSCH to cell_FACH switching Target cell (cell with best CPICH Ec/No in the measurement set) informed in the RB reconfiguration message. . as the UE goes directly to strongest cell in cell_FACH. when UE is commanded to cell_FACH There is no need for cell reselection in cell_FACH.

Establishment of HSDPA Call UE Node B RNC SGSN PDP Established Measurement Report: e4a NBAP: Radio Link Reconfigure Prepare Radio Link Reconfigure Ready AAL2SIG:ERQ AAL2SIG:ECF AAL2SIG:ERQ AAL2SIG:ECF FP: Downlink Sync FP: Uplink Sync FP: Downlink Sync FP: Uplink Sync Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration (DCH) RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete (DCH) Measurement Control HS-DSCH: Capacity Request HS-DSCH: Capacity Allocation HSDPA Traffic .

Mobility in RAS05. 3. DL HS-DSCH = serving cell change . Intra Node-B serving HS-DSCH cell change Inter Node-B serving HS-DSCH cell change HS-DSCH to DCH switch (needed if the UE is moving to a cell without HSDPA support) 1 2 3 HSDPA capable cell HSDPA not supported HSDPA Handover  UL/DL DCH = soft/softer HO .1 RAS05. 2.1 provides full intra-frequency mobility for HSDPA users and enables HSDPA also in SHO region 1.

Agenda Introduction General Principal • HSDPA Key Characteristics. New Features Architectural Changes. Impact on RAN Link Adaptation HSDPA Channel Structure HARQ Principle HSDPA – Operating Principle Packet Scheduling HSDPA Mobility -> Measurement Results .

143.143.20.10: bytes=32 time=84ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=71ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.20.20.143.10: bytes=32 time=73ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.143.10: bytes=32 time=81ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.143.143.143.143.20.10: bytes=32 time=82ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.20.10: bytes=32 time=71ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.143.143.143.20.20.20.32-B Ping Measurements Average Round Trip Time 78 ms Reply from 10.20.143.10: bytes=32 time=81ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=83ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.20.20.20.143.143.143.143.143.20.10: bytes=32 time=83ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.143.143.10: bytes=32 time=83ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.20.10: bytes=32 time=72ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=82ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=83ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=71ms TTL=126 [ms] 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 Samples .10: bytes=32 time=83ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.20.20.143.20.20.20.20.143.20.143.143.10: bytes=32 time=82ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=73ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=71ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=83ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.143.10: bytes=32 time=81ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.20.20.20.143.10: bytes=32 time=73ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=83ms TTL=126 … Round trip time 71-84 ms Round trip time 100 90 80 70 60 Reply from 10.143.20.10: bytes=32 time=74ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=82ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=72ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.10: bytes=32 time=73ms TTL=126 Reply from 10.20.

Multiuser Capacity Sharing Works 1800 1600 1400 1200 Total cell throughput User throughput Total cell throughput remains constant regardless of the number of simultaneous users kbps 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1 2 3 Number of users 4 16 Throughput per user decreases when more users download data (as expected) .

Throughput in Low Signal Power in the Field 1800 1600 1400 1200 6 W HSDPA power assumed 700-900 kbps at RSCP = –108 dBm level kbps 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -94 -96 -98 -100 -102 RSCP [dBm] -104 -106 -108 -110 Simulated flat fading UE noise -101 dBm Measured Option Simulated flat fading UE noise -99 dBm Measured Novatel .