AND JET PROPULSION
Presented by
G.Kumaresan
Mass Flow rate
Mass flow rate
In terms of Pressure ratio
In terms of Area ratio
In terms of Mach number
Non dimensional parameter (Numerical
Value)
Mass flow rate in terms of Mach Number
From m.f.r in terms of Area ratio
A
A
R T
P
2
1
1
2
A
m
0
o
1

÷ ¸ ¸
¸ + ¸

.

\

+ ¸
=
(1)

Cont..
We already derived that area ratio(A/A*) is a unique
function of Mach number in an isentropic flow
( ) ( ) 1 2 1
2
M
1
1
1
2
M
1
A
A
÷ ¸ + ¸


.

\

+ ¸
÷ ¸
+
+ ¸
=
(2)
Substitute eqn. 2 in 1
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 1 2 1
2
1 2 1
o
o
M
1
1
1
2
M
1
2 R
AP
T m
÷ ¸ + ¸
÷ ¸ + ¸

.

\

+ ¸
÷ ¸
+
+ ¸

.

\

+ ¸
=
¸
This on rearranging gives the value of the m.f.
parameter in terms of the local Mach number.
Cont..
This relation can also be obtained
from m.f.r in terms of pressure ratio
Cont..
Substitute Po/P relation in the above
expression
( )
2
1
o
1
2
o
M
2
1
1
P
P
M
2
1
1
P
P ÷ ¸
= ÷

.

\

¬

.

\

÷ ¸
+ =
¸ ÷ ¸ ÷ ¸ ¸
After substituting Po/P, the equation
modified as
Cont..
( ) ( ) 1 2 1
2
o
o
M
2
1
1
M R
AP
T m
÷ ¸ + ¸

.

\

÷ ¸
+
=
¸
(3)
For maximum mass flow conditions,
A=A* and Mach no.=1
Substituting these values in eqn. 3
( ) ( ) 1 2 1
o
o max
1
2 R
P A
T m
÷ ¸ + ¸


.

\

+ ¸
=
¸
Numerical value of the nondimensional max.
mass flow parameter
(4)
The above expression is already obtained
for mass flow parameter in terms of Pr.
ratio and Area ratio
Eqn. 4 show that for a given gas (i.e. R and ) mass
flow per unit area at a given mach number is directly
proportional to the initial stagnation pressure and
inversely proportional to the square root of the
stagnation temperature.
( ) ( ) 1 2 1
o
o max
1
2 R
P A
T m
÷ ¸ + ¸


.

\

+ ¸
=
¸
¸
Cont..
The value of the maximum mass flow
parameter is fixed by the properties of the gas.
Therefore for the same gas various
combinations of Po and To can be used to give
maximum mass flow rate from the following
expression.
For air, R= 287 J/kg K and γ =1.4. Now
substituting this value in the above equation
Cont..
0404 . 0
P A
T m
o
o max

Where
max 0
2 2
/ ,  K
A  m ,  N/m
o
m kg s T
P

÷
Equation (5) is known as Fliegner's
Formula on the name of one of the first
engineers who observed experimentally
the choking phenomenon
(5)
Problem
Air is allowed to flow from a reservoir with
temperature of 21
o
C and with pressure of
5 MPa through a tube. It was measured
that air mass flow rate is 1 kg/sec. At some
point on the tube static pressure was
measured to be 3 MPa. Assume that
process is isentropic and neglect the
velocity at the reservoir, calculate the
Mach number, velocity and the cross
section area at that point where the static
pressure was measured. Assume that the
ratio of specific heat is 1.4
Problem
Solution:
The stagnation conditions at the reservoir
will be maintained through out tube
because the process is isentropic.
Hence the stagnation temperature and
pressure both of them constant (the
condition at the reservoir).
For the point where the static pressure is
known, the Mach number can be
calculated utilizing the pressure ratio.
Cont..
With known Mach number, the temperature,
and velocity can be calculated.
Finally, the cross section can be calculated
with all these information.
From the Given data
6 . 0
5
3
P
p
o
At 0.6 refer isentropic gas table, note down
all the values
Cont..
M
M*
T/T
0
P/P
0
A/A*
F/F*
0.88 0.897 0.869 0.604 1.013 1.006 0.612
0
P
P
A
A

Velocity at measured at that point
282m/s v
5 . 255 287 4 . 1 88 . 0 RT M v ;
a
v
M
=
× × = ¸ = ¬ =
From the above table
K 5 . 255 294 869 . 0 T ; 869 . 0
T
T
o
= × = ¬ =
Cont..
2 5
3
6
m 10 6 . 8
282 41
1
v
m
A Av m
m / kg 41
5 . 255 287
10 3
RT
p
RT p
÷
× =
×
=
µ
= ¬ µ =
=
×
×
= = µ ¬ µ =
Problem2 (without using Gas Table)
A reservoir whose temperature can be varied in a
wide range of temperature receives air at a
constant pressure of 1.5 bar. The air is expanded
isentropically in a nozzle to an exit pressure of
1.015 bar. Determine the values of the
temperature to be maintained in the reservoir to
produce the following velocities at the nozzle exit:
(a)100 m/s (b) 250 m/s
What are the values of the mach numbers in the
two cases
Problem2 (without using Gas Table)
Solution:
From Energy Eqn.
Cont..
Cont..
Cont..
Mach number is same in the two cases
because the pressure ratio is same