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Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another person. It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings and values. John W. Newstrom & Keith Davis


hurdle . . obstacle or problem which partially or fully hinders the free movement of communication is called a barrier.BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Any difficulty .

Informal barriers to communication Emotional or Different perceptions psychological barriers Personal barriers Physical barriers Semantic barriers .

. . environmental & personal experiences .Informal barriers cont. education . • Different perceptions.Different people who different background often perceive the same phenomenon from different perspectives. People react to a communication according to one’s family background . This barrier is perhaps the single most important in all communication – This may also arise due to non-clarity in message encoding by the sender which may give rise to a muddled message. social .


. hate. Emotional or Psychological Barriers.Informal barriers cont. fear. anger. jealousy. .Emotional reactions – love . defensiveness influence how we understand others message. This often creates barriers to communication . embarrassment. This includes  Premature evaluation-In such cases the whole message is not heard carefully but is interpreted in a hurry & sometimes even before the message is completed .

beliefs or opinions. analysis and open-mindedness to a new situation. .Informal barriers cont. an event or a thing on oversimplified conceptions.. a group. Stereotyping can substitute for thinking. Stereotyping . It causes people to act as if they already know what message is coming from the sender or worse. as if no message is necessary because everybody already knows.Stereotyping causes us to typify a person.

noise of the machines lead to break in the conversation & can lead to wastage of time. .. loud music . poor seating arrangements .  It also high temperature . Physical Barriers Noise .  Time acts as a barrier when 2 communicators cannot adjust their time of communication due to different schedules of work . bad light / ventilation .Informal barriers cont. humidity etc )  Distance could be a barrier when the receiver is very far from the sender. ringing of the telephone .

. The reasons could be ignorance of the language .Informal barriers cont. Language can become a barrier . semantic barriers arises from limitations in symbols. Semantic barriersSemantics is the science of meaning.. limited understanding of the language & other mental barriers like confused thinking .

As noun-42 As adverb-16 As verb.23 . The most common semantic barriers are  Symbols with different meanings.Informal barriers cont.. For example. the English word ‘round’ has 11O different meanings.16 As preposition-13 As adjective. The 5OO most common English words have an average 28 definitions.

awkward sentence structure are some common faults.  specialist’s language..lack of clarity and precision in a message makes it a badly expressed message. peculiar and technical language of their own. bad organization of ideas. . careless omission.  Badly expressed message.It is often found that technical personnel and special groups tends to develop a special.Informal barriers cont. This increases their isolation from others and builds a communication barrier. Poorly chosen words and phrases .

Barriers in superiors  Lack of confidence in subordinates.Informal barriers cont..  Insistence on proper channel Barriers in subordinates  Unwillingness to communicate  Lack of proper incentive .

.Informal barriers cont.  Lack of confidence in subordinate. so they does not provide them all information.Superiors generally perceive that their subordinates are less competent and capable..

. Barriers in superiors  Insistence on proper channel. .Superiors wish to remain in formal communication links as they do not like bypassing in communication.Informal barriers cont. be necessary but superiors this as thwarting of their authority and block the flow of communication. Communication through bypassing may sometimes.

The reward and punishment system of the organization is more responsible for it.Lack of motivation to communicate also refrain subordinate to communicate upward. if a subordinate feels that he is likely to be adversely effected by a particular piece of information to his superior he would not be willing to supply it. .Informal barriers cont.. Barriers in subordinates  Unwillingness to communicate –subordinates do not communicate upward certain information because they are not willing to do so. Thus.  Lack of proper incentive.

It includes  Organizational policy  Organizational rules and regulation  Status relationship  complexity in organizational structure  Organizational facilities.Formal and informal barrier to communication to effective communication Formal barriers to communication are the barriers which are related to the formal structure of the organization these barriers are also called organizational barriers. .

The rules may restrict the flow of certain messages and may leave many important one.Formal barriers cont… Organizational rules and regulations – organizational rules and regulation affect the flow of communication by prescribing the subject matters to be communicated and also the channel through these are to be communicated . .

they go for grapevine network as they cannot use the formal channel of communication in that case. grapevine spreads like fire and it is not easy to trace the cause of such communication at times. the employees sense uncertainty. Thus. It exists more at lower levels of organization. It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Sometimes the managers show preferential treatment and favour some employees giving a segregated feeling to other employees.? GRAPEVINE • Grapevine is an informal channel of business communication. . Grapevine generally develops due to various reasons.. Thus. the subordinates talk about their superior’s attitude and behaviour and exchange views with their peers. They discuss rumours about promotion and transfer of other employees. One of them is that when an organization is facing recession. Also. when employees sense a need to exchange their views. at times employees do not have self-confidence due to which they form unions. Generally during breaks in cafeteria.DID YOU KNOW.

Formal barriers cont… Status relationships. greater will be the possibility of communication break down. Greater the difference between hierarchical positions in terms of their status .The placing of people in superior/subordinate capacity in the formal organization structure also blocks the flow of communication and more particularly in upward direction . .

In an organization where there are number of managerial level. chances of communication getting distorted are more. .Formal barriers cont… Complexity in organization structure . . communication get delayed.

generally people fail to make effective communication . complaint box.Formal barriers cont… • organizational facilities. If these are not properly emphasized. clear and timely flow of communication may take a number of forms. Some of these are in the form of communication media such meetings. suggestion box etc.organizational facilities provided for smooth . conferences.


 Principles and practices of management (seventh edition ) by L M Prasad  Articles by keith Davis & Newstrom.F. STOONER R. Jr.REFRENCES  MANEGEMENT (sixth edition) JAMES A.  INTERNET . EDWARD FREEMAN DANIEL R. GILBERTH.

THANK YOU FOR PATIENT LISTENING an essential element of Communication skills .