This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ranking* 1. microbial contamination 2. naturally occurring toxicants 3. environmental contaminants (e.g., metals 4. nutritional problems (i.e., malnutrition, undernutrition) 5. pesticide residues 6. food additives
*1 being most dangerous, 6 least dangerous
Foodborne disease is any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with one or more disease-producing agents. These include bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi and their products as well as toxic substances not of microbial origin.
Infection Intoxication Metabolic food disorder Allergy Idiopathic illness
184 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (alcohol not mentioned) 13.060 Choking on a piece of food 3.106 Heart attack (acute myocardial infarction 261.885 Diabetes mellitus 37.452 Intestinal infectious diseases 466 — A one-in-a-million risk of death in the U. reality What is the likelihood that you will die of foodborne illness? Deaths per year from selected causes in the United States (NCHS.692 Firearm accidents. including handguns 13. including handguns 1.002 Motor vehicle accidents 47.361 Ischemic heart disease 520. in 1986 — 242 Salmonella infections 102 Lightning 78 Botulism 3 . 1986) All causes 2.867 Firearm assaults.S.029 Falling (accidental) 11.Risks — perception vs.105.729 All cancers 476.444 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (alcoholic) 11.
. Cases Foodborne disease outbreak: an incident in which two or more persons experienced a similar illness after ingestion of a common food.Outbreaks vs. and epidemiologic analysis implicated a food as the source of illness. Foodborne disease case: one individual experiences illness after ingestion of an epidemiologically incriminated food.
legal activities . loss of business.Estimates of the yearly incidence of foodborne illness The estimates vary greatly but thought to be around 76 million cases per year Cost estimates range from $5–23 billion per year High cost due to many factors: medical care. loss of productivity. investigation of illness.
Cyclospora other parasites . Norwalk virus Protozoa . usually multiplying organisms at the site of inflammation Bacteria .Trichinella spiralis .Salmonella.Cryptosporidium.Infection Definition: a disease state caused by the presence of viable. Campylobacter Virus .hepatitis A.
Intoxication Definition: a disease state. botulism Saxitoxin. that is not mediated immunologically and is not primarily the result of a genetic deficiency. ciguatera . Staphylococcal food poisoning. caused by exposure to a toxic chemical.
Other) Diarrhogenic Emetic Enterotoxins Neurotoxins Other . Fetus.Foodborne Diseases Infections Intoxications Toxicoinfection Invasive Infection Chemical Poisoning Poisonous Plant Tissues Poisonous Animal Tissues Microbial Intoxications Other Neurotoxins Enterotoxins Intestinal Mucosa Mycotoxins (Fungal Toxins) Algal Toxins Bacterial Toxins Systemic Other Tissues or Organs (Muscle. Liver. Joints.
Liver.Foodborne Diseases Intoxications Infections Toxicoinfection Invasive Infection Other Neurotoxins Enterotoxins Intestinal Mucosa Systemic Other Tissues or Organs (Muscle. Fetus. Joints. Other) .
Foodborne Diseases Intoxications Infections Chemical Poisoning Poisonous Plant Tissues Poisonous Animal Tissues Microbial Intoxications Mycotoxins (Fungal Toxins) Algal Toxins Bacterial Toxins Diarrhogenic Emetic Enterotoxins Neurotoxins Other .
shellfish Soil contaminated foods Animals and birds Human carriers Seafoods Animal intestines .Examples of foodborne infections/intoxications Disease Reservoir Botulism food intoxication Campylobacteriosis Clostridium perfringens food poisoning Salmonellosis Staphylococcal food poisoning Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection Yersinia enterocolitica infection Soil contaminated foods Cattle. poultry.
Metabolic food disorder Definition: a disease state caused by exposure to a chemical that is toxic to certain individuals only because they exhibit some genetic deficiency lactose intolerance favism .
egg-ovalbumin small molecules penicillin . etc.Allergy Definition: a disease state caused by exposure to a particular chemical that (often proteinaceous) to which certain individuals have a heightened sensitivity (hypersensitivity) that has an immunological basis proteins (heat resistant and resistant to digestion) cow’s milk: b-lactoglobulin. casein.
Idiopathic illness Definition: any illness of uncertain pathogenesis that may possibly but not certainly be due to foods. any food-caused illness that does not fit into one of the other categories Chinese restaurant syndrome celiac disease hyperkinesis . also.
Objectives of foodborne disease surveillance prevention and control: identification of contaminated products knowledge of disease causation: observe the track record of various illnesscausing agents administrative guidance: assessment of trends to justify regulatory decisions/actions .
Information reported to and compiled by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Outbreaks of known etiology = where laboratory evidence indicated a specific agent Outbreaks of unknown etiology = where epidemiological evidence implicated foodborne transmission. but the etiological agent was not identified. 4 subgroups based on incubation period: < 1 hr = probable chemical poisoning 1 – 7 hr = probable Staphylococcus aureus poisoning 8 – 14 hr = probable Clostridium perfringens food poisoning > 14 hr = probably other infectious/toxic agents Outbreaks of known vehicle = a particular food item was associated with the illness .
Vol. p. 49/No.4) Bacterial Chemical Parasitic Viral Confirmed etiology Unknown etiology 878 (31.270 (41.cdc. (%) 28 (96. cases.4) (0. (%) 655 (23.0) ex MMWR Table 1.751 (100. 11 http://www. 1993–1997 Outbreaks No. SS-1.7) Deaths No.7) (4.0) 86. and deaths.1) 50.9) 576 2.7) (2. (%) 43.058 (100.873 (68.0) Total 1993–1997 2.9) 1.0) 29 (100.788 (59.066 (0.821 (50.Number of reported foodborne-disease outbreaks.8) 148 19 56 (5.6) (3.7) (2.325 4.0) Cases No. by etiology — United States.0) 35.htm .6) 0 0 0 28 1 (0) (0) (0) (96.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss4901a1.
gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/mead.Estimated illnesses for known foodborne pathogens. J.629. United States Disease or agent Estimated total cases Bacteria Parasites Viruses Grand Total 5. Tauxe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(5):607–625 (1999). and R. L.883.934 2. http://www.541.391 38.641 ex Mead. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Bresee. L. Griffin. McCaig. P.. F.cdc. S. V. P. V. Shapiro.htm . Slutskaer.316 30. C. Dietz.204. M. S.
Inadequate reheating 3.7 Improper cooling 22. Toxic containers 3. Improper hot holding 3. Contributing Factor Percent* Contaminated raw food/ingredient 42. 1973–1982 Ranking 1.5 10. 3.3 Obtained food from unsafe source 28. 2. Colonized person handling implicated food 9.5 11. 5.. Improper fermentations 4.3 Lapse of 12 or more hours between preparing and eating 12. 4. Cross-contamination 3.Top Twelve Factors Contributing to 345 Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease Caused by Mishandling and/or Mistreatment of Foods in Homes in the U.9 7.6 9. Mistaken for food 7.0 8.0 Inadequate cooking/canning/heat processing 31.2 *Percentage exceeds 100 because multiple factors contribute to single outbreak .8 6.S.2 12.
and other animals. Wash hands repeatedly. 8. Reheat cooked foods thoroughly. Store cooked foods carefully. 1. Keep all kitchen surfaces meticulously clean. 7. rodents. 3.―The World Health Organization’s Golden Rules for Safe Food Preparation‖ Choose foods processed for safety Cook food thoroughly Eat cooked foods immediately. 4. . 2. Protect foods from insects. Avoid contact between raw and cooked foods. Use pure water. 10. 6. 9. 5.
The future and foodborne illness Demographics Human behavior changing Technology changing Global market .
Populations sensitive to foodborne disease Pregnant women Neonates Elderly (over 65) Residents in nursing home or related care facilities Cancer patients (nonhospitalized) Organ transplant patients AIDS patients .
The aging population 450 Numbers of people (in millions) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 65 years of age 392 263 276 1995 2000 2050 Year .
7 billion people 1998 6.2 billion people (medium population projection) .Population Earth’s increasing population 1900 1.0 billion people 2050 8.
Future water usage Competition between agriculture. Modern agriculture accounts for 70–80% of water usage. industry. and personal households. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.