You are on page 1of 17

Sound wave is a mechanical wave that requires a medium for its propagation.

Therefore sound wave cannot propagate in vacuum.

The medium for propagation can be solid, liquid or

gas.

Sound waves propagate fastest in solid and slowest

in gas.

Sound wave is a series of compression and rarefaction of layers of air molecules repeatedly through

Sound wave is a series of compression and

rarefaction of layers of air molecules repeatedly through space.

The forward and backward vibration of the air molecules in the direction of motion of a sound wave shows that sound is a longitudinal wave.

Human ear is capable of hearing sound with frequency in the range of 20Hz 20,000Hz, and the sound wave with frequency in this range is called an

audio/Sonic wave.

Sound wave with frequency lower than 20Hz is called an Infrasonic Wave.

Sound wave with frequency higher than 20,000Hz is called an Ultrasonic wave.

Infrasonic

Audio/Sonic

Ultrasonic

<20Hz

20Hz 20000Hz

>20 kHz

Speed of sound wave in solids is greater than in liquids, which is greater than in gases.

Speed of sound in air is not affected by pressure, but is affected by the temperature.

As temperature increases, speed of sound in air (and other gases) is also increases.

Sound usually travels more slowly with greater

altitude, due to reduced temperature.

SPEED OF SOUND WAVE Speed of sound can be calculated by the equation

SPEED OF SOUND WAVE Speed of sound can be calculated by the equation

The clicking sound of the stop watch can be heared clearly when the angle of incidence, i is equal to the angle of reflection, r.

Sound waves obey the law of reflection. That is, the angle

of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

The amplitude of the sound wave increases when a balloon filled with carbon dioxide is placed

The amplitude of the sound wave increases when a balloon filled with carbon dioxide is placed between the speaker and the microphone.

Explanation:

Carbon dioxide is denser than air.

The sound wave is refracted approaching the normal

when the wave propagates from the air into the balloon, and away from normal when moving out from the balloon. As a result, the balloon acts as a biconvex lens and converge the sound wave at a point.

The amplitude of the sound wave decreases when a balloon filled with helium gas is placed

The amplitude of the sound wave decreases when a balloon filled with helium gas is placed between the speaker and the microphone.

The amplitude of the sound wave decreases when a balloon filled with helium gas is placed

Helium gas is less dense than air.

The sound wave is refracted away from the normal when the wave propagates from the air into the balloon, and closer to the normal when moving out from the balloon. As a result, the wave is diverged to a wider area and causes the amplitude of the sound wave decreases.

Helium gas is less dense than air. The sound wave is refracted away from the normal

Distant sounds often appear louder and clearer at night.

At night the air near the ground is often cooler than the air

higher up, because it is close to the cold ground. The sound waves travel faster through the warmer , less dense layers of

air , and this refracts the sound wave back toward the

ground.

The sound of a distance train is clearer at night.

Explanation:

At night, the air closer to the ground is cooler than the air

further from the ground. Sound wave travel slower in cool air. As a result, the sound wave is refracted in the path of curve towards the ground

instead of spreading to a wider area (as at daytime).