Introduction & Basic Principle Involved
As part of 3rd Group

.Vibrational (Infra-Red) Spectroscopy Vibrational spectroscopy involves the transitions between the vibrational energy levels of a molecule on the absorption of the radiations falling in the spectral range of 500-4000(1/cm) ( infra red ) region.

As with all spectroscopic techniques. mostly based on absorption spectroscopy.  It covers a range of techniques. that is light with a longer wavelength and lower frequency than visible light. it can be used to identify and study chemicals .INTRODUCTION  Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Theory Infrared spectroscopy exploits the fact that molecules absorb specific frequencies that are characteristic of their structure. i. the masses of the atoms. . The energies are determined by the shape of the molecular potential energy surfaces. the frequency of the absorbed radiation matches the frequency of the bond or group that vibrates.e. and the associated vibronic coupling. These absorptions are resonant frequencies.

or . A molecule can vibrate in many ways." it must be associated with changes in the permanent dipole. a non-linear molecule. Linear molecules have 3N – 5 degrees of vibrational modes Nonlinear molecules have 3N – 6 degrees of vibrational modes (also called vibrational degrees of freedom). will have 3×3-6 = 3 degrees of vibrational freedom.Number of vibrational modes  In order for a vibrational mode in a molecule to be     "IR active. an example H2O. and each way is called a vibrational mode.

stretching 4.The atoms in a CH2 group. symmetric 2. commonly found in organic compounds. twisting . wagging 7. scissoring 5. rocking 6. antisymmetric 3. can vibrate in six different ways: 1.

. which changes in wavelength over time.Practical IR spectroscopy  The infrared spectrum of a sample is recorded by passing a beam of infrared light through the sample.  This technique works almost exclusively on samples with covalent bonds. The technique has been used for the characterization of very complex mixtures. From this. Examination of the transmitted light reveals how much energy was absorbed at each wavelength. or by using a Fourier transform instrument to measure all wavelengths at once. This can be done with a monochromatic beam. a transmittance or absorbance spectrum can be produced. showing at which IR wavelengths the sample absorbs. More complex molecular structures lead to more absorption bands and more complex spectra. Analysis of these absorption characteristics reveals details about the molecular structure of the sample. absorption occurs. Simple spectra are obtained from samples with few IR active bonds and high levels of purity. When the frequency of the IR is the same as the vibrational frequency of a bond.

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