The Internet and the World Wide Web


The Internet and the World Wide Web
• Computer network
– Any technology that allows people to connect computers to each other

• The Internet
– A large system of interconnected computer networks spanning the globe

• World Wide Web
– A subset of computers on the Internet
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Origins of the Internet
• Early 1960s
– U.S. Department of Defense funded research to explore creating a worldwide network

• In1969, Defense Department researchers connected four computers into a network called ARPANET • Throughout the 1970s and 1980s
– Academic researchers connected to ARPANET and contributed to its technological developments

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New Uses for the Internet
• 1972
– E-mail was born

• Mailing list
– E-mail address that forwards any message received to any user who has subscribed to the list •

– Started by a group of students and programmers at Duke University and the University of North Carolina

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Growth of the Internet
• In 1991, the NSF
– Eased restrictions on commercial Internet activity – Began implementing plans to privatize the Internet

• Network access points (NAPs)‫‏‬
– Basis of the new structure of the Internet

• Network access providers
– Sell Internet access rights directly to larger customers and indirectly to smaller firms and individuals through ISPs

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Growth of the Internet

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Emergence of the World Wide Web (continued)‫‏‬
• Tim Berners-Lee developed code for a hypertext server program • Hypertext server
– Stores files written in the hypertext markup language – Lets other computers connect to it and read files

• Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)‫‏‬
– Includes a set of codes (or tags) attached to text

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Packet-Switched Networks
• Local area network (LAN)‫‏‬
– Network of computers located close together

• Wide area networks (WANs)‫‏‬
– Networks of computers connected over greater distances

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Packet-Switched Networks (continued)‫‏‬
• Packets
– Files and e-mail messages on a packet-switched network that are broken down into small pieces – Travel from computer to computer along the interconnected networks until they reach their destinations

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Routing Packets
• Routing computers
– Computers that decide how best to forward packets

• Routing algorithms
– Rules contained in programs on router computers that determine the best path on which to send packets – Programs apply their routing algorithms to information they have stored in routing tables

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Router-based Architecture of the Internet

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Internet Protocols
• Protocol
– Collection of rules for formatting, ordering, and errorchecking data sent across a network

• Rules for message handling
– Independent networks should not require any internal changes to be connected to the network – Packets that do not arrive at their destinations must be retransmitted from their source network – Router computers act as receive-and-forward devices – No global control exists over the network

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– Controls disassembly of a message or a file into packets before transmission over the Internet – Controls reassembly of packets into their original formats when they reach their destinations

• IP
– Specifies addressing details for each packet

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IP Addressing
• Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
– Uses a 32-bit number to identify computers connected to the Internet

• Base 2 (binary) number system
– Used by computers to perform internal calculations

• Subnetting
– Use of reserved private IP addresses within LANs and WANs to provide additional address space

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IP Addressing (continued)‫‏‬
• Private IP addresses
– Series of IP numbers not permitted on packets that travel on the Internet

• Network Address Translation (NAT) device
– Used in subnetting to convert private IP addresses into normal IP addresses

• Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
– Protocol that will replace IPv4 – Uses a 128-bit number for addresses

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Domain Names
• Sets of words assigned to specific IP addresses

• Top-level domain (or TLD)‫‏‬
– Rightmost part of a domain name

• Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)‫‏‬
– Responsible for managing domain names and coordinating them with IP address registrars
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Top-Level Domain Names

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Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols
• Web client computers
– Run software called Web client software or Web browser software

• Web server computers
– Run software called Web server software

• Client/server architecture
– Combination of client computers running Web client software and server computers running Web server software
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Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols (continued)‫‏‬
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)‫‏‬
– Set of rules for delivering Web page files over the Internet

• Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
– Combination of the protocol name and domain name
– Allows user to locate a resource (the Web page) on another computer (the Web server)‫‏‬
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Electronic Mail Protocols
• Electronic mail (e-mail)‫‏‬
– Must be formatted according to a common set of rules

• E-mail server
– Computer devoted to handling e-mail

• E-mail client software
– Used to read and send e-mail – Examples include Microsoft Outlook and Netscape Messenger

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Electronic Mail Protocols (continued)‫‏‬
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
– Specifies format of a mail message

• Post Office Protocol (POP)‫‏‬
– POP message can tell the e-mail server to
• Send‫‏‬mail‫‏‬to‫‏‬a‫‏‬user’s‫‏‬computer‫‏‬and‫‏‬delete‫‏‬it‫‏‬from‫‏‬ the e-mail server • Send‫‏‬mail‫‏‬to‫‏‬a‫‏‬user’s‫‏‬computer‫‏‬and‫‏‬not‫‏‬delete‫‏‬it • Simply ask whether new mail has arrived

– Provides support for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)‫‏‬
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Intranets and Extranets
• Intranet
– Interconnected network that does not extend beyond the organization that created it

• Extranet
– Intranet extended to include entities outside the boundaries of an organization – Connects companies with suppliers, business partners, or other authorized users

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Public and Private Networks
• Public network
– Any computer network or telecommunications network available to the public

• Private network
– A private, leased-line connection between two companies that physically connects their intranets

• Leased line
– Permanent telephone connection between two points

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Internet Connection Options
• Bandwidth
– Amount of data that can travel through a communication line per unit of time

• Net bandwidth
– Actual speed that information travels

• Symmetric connections
– Provide the same bandwidth in both directions

• Asymmetric connections
– Provide different bandwidths for each direction

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Voice-Grade Telephone Connections
• POTS, or plain old telephone service
– Uses existing telephone lines and an analog modem – Provides bandwidth between 28 and 56 Kbps

• Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)‫‏‬
– Connection methods do not use a modem

• Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)‫‏‬
– Bandwidths between 128 Kbps and 256 Kbps
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Broadband Connections
• Operate at speeds of greater than 200 Kbps • Asymmetric digital subscriber (ADSL)‫‏‬
– Transmission bandwidth is from 100 to 640 Kbps upstream and from 1.5 to 9 Mbps downstream

• Cable modems
– Provide transmission speeds between 300 Kbps and 1 Mbps

– Private line with no competing traffic
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Leased-Line Connections
• DS0 (digital signal zero)‫‏‬
– Telephone line designed to carry one digital signal

• T1 line (also called a DS1)‫‏‬
– Carries 24 DS0 lines and operates at 1.544 Mbps

• Fractional T1
– Provides service speeds of 128 Kbps and upward in 128-Kbps increments

• T3 service (also called DS3)‫‏‬
– Offers 44.736 Mbps
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Wireless Connections
• Bluetooth
– Designed for personal use over short distances – Low-bandwidth technology, with speeds of up to 722 Kbps – Networks are called personal area networks (PANs) or piconets – Consumes very little power – Devices can discover each other and exchange information automatically

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Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi or 802.11b)‫‏‬
• Most common wireless connection technology for use on LANs • Wireless access point (WAP)
– Device that transmits network packets between Wi-Fi-equipped computers and other devices

• Has potential bandwidth of 11 Mbps and a range of about 300 feet • Devices are capable of roaming
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Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi or 802.11b) (continued)‫‏‬
• 802.11a protocol
– Capable of transmitting data at speeds up to 54 Mbps

• 802.11g protocol
– Has 54 Mbps speed of 802.11a – Compatible with 802.11b devices

• 802.11n
– Expected to offer speeds up to 320 Mbps
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Cellular Telephone Networks
• Third-generation (3G) cell phones
– Combine latest technologies available today

• Short message service (SMS)‫‏‬
– Protocol used to send and receive short text messages

• Mobile commerce (m-commerce)‫‏‬
– Describes the kinds of resources people might want to access using wireless devices
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Internet2 and the Semantic Web
• Internet2
– Experimental test bed for new networking technologies – Has achieved bandwidths of 10 Gbps and more on parts of its network – Used by universities to conduct large collaborative research projects

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Internet2 and the Semantic Web (continued)‫‏‬
• Semantic Web
– Project by Tim Berners-Lee – If successful, it would result in words on Web pages being tagged (using XML) with their meanings

• Resource description framework (RDF)
– Set of standards for XML syntax

• Ontology
– Set of standards that defines relationships among RDF standards and specific XML tags
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