Prof Bijaya Ku. Sundaray
What Is a Group?
Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
Two or more freely interacting individuals who share a common identity and purpose.
Why People Join Groups
•Status •Self-esteem •Affiliation •Power •Goal Achievement
Defining and Classifying Groups
Prentice Hall. 2001 Chapter 8 5
The Five-Stage Model of Group Development
Forming Stage Storming Stage Norming Stage
.Stages of Group Development
Prestage I Stage I Forming Stage II Storming
Stage III Norming
Stage IV Performing
Stage V Adjourning
Group Behavior Model
Group Member Resources Group Task
Performance and Satisfaction
External Conditions Imposed on the Group
•Overall strategy •Authority structures •Formal regulations •Resources •Employee selection •Evaluation-rewards •Culture •Work setting
Classes of Norms:
•Performance norms •Appearance norms •Social arrangement norms •Allocation of resources norms
Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.
How Do Norms Develop?
statements made by a group member Critical events in the group’s history Primacy Past experience
Why Are Norms Enforced?
it facilitates the group’s survival If it increases the predictability of group member’s behavior If it reduces embarassing interpersonal problem If it allows members to express the central value of the group
Group Member Status
.Group Member Status
A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.
. •Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Other conclusions:
•Odd number groups do better than even.Social Loafing
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
7. Encourage agreement with group goals. Make the group smaller. 3.
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. 2. not individuals. Stimulate competition with other groups. Give rewards to the group. Increase group status and admission difficultly. Physically isolate the group. 4. 6.
Increasing group cohesiveness:
1. Increase time members spend together. 5.
Factors Influencing Group Cohesiveness
Nature of the group Size of the group Time spent together Location Severity of initiation
Status of the group Outside pressure Previous success Inter-dependency
Low Productivity Moderate to Low Productivity
Theories of Group Formation
Theory Homan’s Theory Balance Theory Exchange Theory
( Theodore Newcomb )
(Thibaut and Kelly) Reward Cost
Reward > Cost Reward < Cost
and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
A group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose. a set of performance goals.
decides and delegates
.Differences Between Work Group and Work Team
Purpose is to interactto share information No positive synergy Cleared focused on leader Individually accountable
Collective performance Positive synergy Shared leadership Both individually and mutually accountable Open ended problem solving meeting Discusses. decides and does the real work
Formal meeting Discusses.
Clear purpose Informality Participation Listening Open communication Civilised disagreement Consensus decision making Shared leadership
Importance of Teams
Improved employee motivation Positive synergy Satisfation of social needs Commitment to team goals Improved organisational communication Organisational flexibility
Types of Teams
solving Teams Self –managed Teams Cross –functional Teams Virtual Teams
. better communication and less dysfunctional conflicts.Team Building
includes a whole set of techniques aimed at improving the functioning of a work group. It strives for greater cooperation.
Building Effective Team Performance
Size Selection of members Developing a code of conduct Establish urgency & demanding standards Allocating right roles to right people Building personal bonding and creative insights Individual responsibility and accountability Appropriate recognition & reward system Developing trust among members
What Makes Workplace Teams Effective?
– Innovative ideas
– Goals accomplished
– Adaptability to change
– High person/team commitment – Being rated highly by upper
Group Decision Making
can be either toward conservatism or greater risk. Groupshift
A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make.Groupthink Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action.
Techniques for Group Decision Making
Effects of Group Processes
Potential Group Effectiveness Process Losses
Potential Group Effectiveness
Group Decision Making
More Diversity of Views Increased information Higher-quality decisions Improved Commitment
Prentice Hall. 2001
Dominant Individuals Unclear Responsibility Time and money costs Conformity pressures
Group Effectiveness and Efficiency