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Bits
Rotary Drilling Bits
1. Various bit types available
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit for a
given situation
3. Standard methods for evaluating dull bits
4. Factors affecting bit wear and drilling
speed
5. Optimization of bit weight and rotary
speed
1. Various Bit Types Available
• The process of drilling a hole in the ground
required the use of drilling bits. Indeed, the
bit is the most basic tool used by drilling
engineer, and the selection of the best bit
and bit operating conditions is one of the
most basic problems that he faces.
1. Various Bit Types Available
• An extremely large variety of bits are
manufactured for different situations
encountered during rotary drilling
operations. It is important for the drilling
engineer to learn the fundamentals of bit
design so he can understand fully the
difference among the various bits available.
1. Various Bit Types Available
• Drag bits
• Polycrystalline
Diamond(PDC) Bits
• Rolling Cutter Bits
• Standard Classification
of Bits
1. Various Bit Types Available
• All drag bits consist of fixed cutter blades that are
integral with the body of the bit and rotate as a
unit with the drillstring.
• Usually have two or more cones containing the
cutting elements.
1.1 Drag Bits
Including bits with steel
cutters,diamond bits,and
PDC bits.
1.1 Drag Bits
advantages: have no rolling parts; less chance
of bit breakage
formation: steel cutter elements—(fishtail
bit) uniformly soft, unconsolidated;
diamond bit—nonbrittle formations with
plastic mode of failure
1.1 Drag Bits
• Design features:
The number and shape of the cutting stones,the
size and location of the water courses,and
metallurgy of the bit and cutting elements.
For diamond bit: important design—crown
profile. The size and number of diamonds used in
a diamond bit depends on the hardness of the
formation.Hard—0.07~0.125carat;soft—
0.75~2carat
1.2 Polycrystalline Diamond Bits
Other important design features:cutter
orientation in terms of back rake, side rake,
and chip clearance or cutter exposure
formation: soft, firm, and mediumhard
nonabrasive that are not ―gummy‖.
small backrake angles—soft formation
side rake—move cuttings
1.2 Polycrystalline Diamond Bits
The exposure of the cutter provides room
for the cutting to peel off the hole bottom
without impacting against the body and
packing in front of the cutter.
1.2 Polycrystalline Diamond Bits
A negative backrake angle of 20° is
standard on many steelbody PDC bits.
However, smaller backrake angle, which
are bettersuited for soft formations, are
also available.
1.2 Polycrystalline Diamond Bits
The siderake assist in pushing the cuttings
formed to the side of the hole, much like the
action of the plow.
1.2 Polycrystalline Diamond Bits
• Cutter orientation must be properly matched to the
hardness of the formation being drilled.
• Soft, nonabrasiveset to emphasize aggressive
cutting. Otherwise use a lessaggressive cutting
orientation.
• The cutter orientation also depends on the
expected cutter velocity, which in turn depends on
the distance of the cutter location from the center
of the hole.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• The threecone rolling cutter bit is the most
common bit type currently used in rotary
drilling operations. This general bit type is
available with a large variety of tooth
design and bearing types.
• The drilling action of a rolling cutter bit
depends to some extent on the offset of the
cones.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• Offset of the cones: a measure of how much the
cone axes moved so that their axes do not
interact at a common point of the centerline of
the hole.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
Advantage: cause the cone to stop rotating
periodically as the bit is turned and scrape
the hole bottom much like a drag bit. Tends
to increase drilling speed in most formation
types.
Disadvantage: promotes faster tooth wear in
abrasive formation
cone offset angle 0~4°(hard—soft)
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• Shape of the bit teeth also has a large effect on
the drilling action of a rolling cutter bit.
long, widely spaced steel teeth –soft formation.
The long teeth easily penetrate the soft rock, and
the scraping action provided by alternate
rotation and plowing action of the offset cone
removes the material penetrated.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• The wide spacing of the teeth on the cone
promotes bit cleaning.
• Teeth cleaning is mainly provided by the
intermeshing of teeth on different cones.
• As the rock type gets harder, the tooth
length and cone offset must be reduced to
prevent tooth breakage
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• The metallurgy requirements of the bit teeth
also depend on the formation characteristics.
• The two primary types used are (1)milled
tooth, and (2) tungsten carbide insert cutters.
• Milling the teeth out of a steel cone.
• Pressing a tungsten carbide cylinder into
accurately machined holes in the cone
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• The milled tooth bits designed for soft
formation usually are faced with a wear
resistant material, such as tungsten carbide,
on one side of the tooth.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
The application of
hard facing only
on one side of the
tooth allows more
rapid wear on one
side of the tooth
than the other,and
the tooth stays
relatively sharp.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• The milled tooth bits designed for hard
formation are usually case hardened by
special processing and heat treating the
cutter during manufacturing.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
This casehardened steel should wear by
chipping and tend to keep the bit tooth sharp
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• As for the tungsten carbide insert cutters:
• short and have a hemispherical end (button
bits)—hard formation
• Long and chiselshaped end –soft formation
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• Position of the teeth
inner rows of teeth: positioned on different
cones intermesh
outer row of teeth: hard work—penetrate
and gauge protection
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• Bearings assemblies
standard bearing assembly—inexpensive:
consists of (1) a rollertype outer (2) a ball
type intermediate, and (3)a frictiontype
nose bearing. ( gif )
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
Sealed bearing assemblyintermediatecost:
The bearings are maintained in a grease
environment by grease seals, a grease
reservoir, and a compensator plug.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
journal bearing assemblyadvanced
• In this type: the roller bearings are
eliminated and the cone rotates in contact
with the journal bearing pin.
1.3 Rolling Cutter Bits
• High speed O ring sealed floating
journal bearing assembly—recent
developed:
• Adding the floating sleeve between
the surfaces of journal bearings and
adding floating button between the
thrust faces. This decreases the
relative linear velocity of the
bearings and reduces the
temperature of the friction surfaces,
and makes bearing being applicable
to high speed drilling.
1.4 Standard Classification of Bits
• IADC—threedigit code
firstbit series number and the formation series
code
from D1 to D5 are reserved for diamond or PDC bits
in the soft, mediumsoft, medium, mediumhard, and
hard formation categories respectively. Series
1,2,and 3 are reserved for milled tooth bits in the soft,
medium, and hard formation categories respectively.
Series 5,6,7, and 8 are for insert bits in the soft,
medium, hard and extremely hard formation
categories, respectively. 4 is used for future use.
1.4 Standard Classification of Bits
Second—type number
type 0 is reserved for the PDC drag bits.
Type 1 through 4 designate a formation
hardness subclassification from the softest
to the hardest formation within each
category.
1.4 Standard Classification of Bits
Third– feature number(structure feature
code of bit)
The feature number are interpreted
differently depending on the general
type of bit being described.
1.4 Standard Classification of Bits
• Kingdream roller cone bit for oil well drilling
featured innovative structure with various
types. 10 standard series, 25 sizes and more
than 500 types of bit designs are tailored for
the drilling applications in different kinds of
formation from soft to hard.
Classification:standard series with the special
structure combinations formed into special
series.
1.4 Standard Classification of Bits
• For example： 8 1/2HJT537GLbit
• 8 ½: Bit diameter is 8 1/2 inches(215.9mm)
• HJT: Metal face sealed journal bearing,
special gage protection
• 537:Insert bit for drilling in soft to medium
hard formation with low compressive strength
• G :Reinforced bit head OD
• L :Bit head OD stabilization pad
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• Wedging
• Scraping and grinding
• Erosion by fluid jet action
• Percussion or crushing
• Torsion or twisting
All above are interrelated
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• For drag bits: primarily by wedging
mechanism, A twisting action also may
contribute to rock removal from the center
portion of the hole.
• A schematic illustrating the wedging action
of a drag bit tooth just prior to cutting failure
is shown below:
Wedging action of drag bit(5.13)
A vertical force
from the bit
weight, a
horizontal force
from the rotary
table. The two
force defines
the plane of
thrust of the
tooth or wedge
Wedging action of drag bit
The cuttings
are shared off
in a share plane
at an initial
angle to the
thrust plane
that is
dependent on
the properties
of the rock
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• The depth of the cut is controlled by the plane of
thrust and is selected based on the strength of the
rock and the radius to the cut. The depth of the cut
is often expressed in terms of the bottom cutting
angle. The angle is a function of the desired cutter
penetration per revolution, it can be defined by
r
L
p
t
o
2
tan =
Mohr theory of failure
• The Mohr criterion states that yielding or
fracturing should occur when the shear stress
exceeds the sum of the cohesive resistance of
the material c and the frictional resistance of
the slip planes or fracture plane.
• The Mohr criterion is stated mathematically by
Mohr theory of failure
( ) u o t tan
n
c + ± =
Where
friction internal of angle
plane failure at the stress normal
material the of resistence cohesive
failure at stress shear
=
=
=
=
u
o
t
n
c
Mohr theory of failure
This is the equation of a line that is tangent to Mohr’s
circle drawn for at least two compression test made
at different levels of confining pressure.
Mohr theory of failure
• Equations that are
represent the Mohr
circle is given by
( ) ( )  o o t 2 sin
2
1
3 1
÷ =
The angle of internal friction, ° 90 to sum must 2 and ,  u
( ) ( ) ( )  o o o o o 2 cos
2
1
2
1
3 1 3 1
÷ ÷ + =
n
Example for further understand
• A rock sample under a 2,000psi confining
pressure fails when subjected to a
compressive loading of 10,000psi along a
plane which makes angle of 27°with the
direction of the compressive load. Using the
Mohr failure criterion, determine the angle
of internal friction, the shear strength, and
the cohesive resistance of the material.
Example for further understand
• Solution. The angle
° 90 to sum must 2 and ,  u
Thus ,the angle of internal friction is given by
( ) ° = ÷ = 36 27 2 90 u
The shear strength is computed by
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 236 , 3 54 sin 000 , 2 000 , 10
2
1
2 sin
2
1
3 1
= ° ÷ =
÷ =  o o t
Example for further understand
• The stress normal to the fracture plane is
computed by
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3,649psi
54 cos 000 , 2 000 , 10
2
1
000 , 2 000 , 10
2
1
2 cos
2
1
2
1
3 1 3 1
=
° ÷ ÷ + =
÷ ÷ + =  o o o o o
n
The cohesive resistance can be computed by
( ) psi
c
n
585 36 3,649tan  3,236
tan
= ° =
÷ = u o t
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• For rolling cutter bits: employ all of the
basic mechanism. Predominant—percussion
or crushing (present for the IADC series 3,7,
and 8,hard brittle formation)
• Maurer have provided considerable insight
into the basic mode of failure beneath the
bit tooth.
Apparatus used by Maurer
This apparatus allowed the borehole pressure, rock pore pressure,
and rock confining pressure to varied independently.
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• A load is applied to a bit tooth.
The constant pressure beneath
the tooth increase until it
exceeds the crushing strength of
the rock, finely powdered rock
formed. As the force on the
tooth increase the material in
the wedge compresses and
exerts high lateral forces on the
solid rock surrounding the
wedge then fracture formed.
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• The fracture propagate
along a maximum
shear surface, which
intersect the direction
of the principal
stresses at a nearly
constant angle as
predicted by the Mohr
failure criteria.
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• At low differential
pressure, the cuttings
formed in the zone of
broken rock are ejected
easily from the crater. The
bit tooth then moves
forward until it reaches the
bottom of the crater, and
the process may be
repeated
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• At high differential
pressure, the downward
pressure and frictional
forces between the rock
fragments prevent ejection
of the fragments. As the
force on the tooth is
increased, displacement
takes place along fracture
planes parallel to the
initial fracture.
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• An example of
ejection of the rock
fragments from the
crater.
1.5 Rock Failure Mechanisms
• For drilling bits with a
large offset: the
situation is more
complex.
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• Trial and error
• The most valid criterion for comparing the
performance of various bits is the drilling
cost per unit interval drilled
• the drilling cost formula is
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
( )
time trip t
run bit the during time rotating non t
run bit the during time rotating total t
unit time per rig the of cost operating fixed the is C
bit the of cost the is C
depth unit per cost drilled is C
where
t
c
b
r
b
f
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
A
+ + +
=
D
t t t C C
C
t c b r b
f
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• Since on amount of arithmetic allows us to
drill the same section of hole more than
once, comparisons must be made between
succeeding bits in a given well or between
bits used to drill the same formation in
different wells. The formations frilled with
a given bit on a previous nearby well can be
correlated to the well in progress using well
logs and mud logging records.
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• Wildcat area: bit type can be made on the basis of
what is known about the formation characteristics
and drilling cost in an area.
• The terms usually used by drilling engineers to
describe the formation characteristics are
drillability and abrasiveness.
• drillability is a measure of how easy the formation
is to drill. It is inversely related to the compressive
strength of the rock. Generally tends to decrease
with depth in a given area.
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• The abrasiveness of the formation is a
measure of how rapidly the teeth of a milled
tooth bit will wear when drill the formation.
Although there are some exceptions, the
abrasiveness tends to increase as the
drillability decreases.
• In absence of prior bit records, several rules
of thumb often are used:
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• The initial bit type and features selected should be
governed by bit cost consideration.
• Threecone rollingcutter bits are the most
versatile bit type available and are a good initial
choice for the shallow portion of the well
• When using a rollingcutter bit :
• using the longest tooth size possible
• A small amount of tooth breakage should be tolerated
rather than selecting a shorter tooth size.
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• When enough weight cannot be applied economically to a
milled tooth bit to cause selfsharpening tooth wear, a
longer tooth size should be used.
• When the rate of tooth wear is much less than the rate of
bearing wear,select a longer tooth size, a better bearing
design, or apply more bit weight.
• When the rate of bearing wear is much less than the rate of
tooth wear, select a shorter tooth size, a more economical
bearing design or apply less bit weight.
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• Diamond drag bits perform best in non
brittle formation having a plastic mode of
failure, especially in the bottom portion of a
deep well, where the high cost of tripping
operation favors a long bit life, and a small
hole size favors the simplicity of a drag bit
design.
2. Criteria for selecting the best bit
• PDC drag bit perform best in uniform
section of carbonates that are not broken up
with hard shale stringers or other brittle
rock types.
• PDC drag bits should not be used in gummy
formations,which have a strong tendency to
stick to the bit cutters.
Inversion theory
input
mode output
Feedback
information
Input: the drill
string structures and
drilling parameters
Output: mud log data,
well trajectory survey
and well logging etc.
3.Bit Evaluation
• IADC standard: adopted a numerical code
for reporting the degree of bit wear relative
to the (1) teeth, (2) bearings, and (3) bit
diameter (gauge wear) structure.
• Grading tooth wear
• Grading bearing wear
• Grading gauge wear
3.Bit Evaluation
• Grading tooth wear
• For milled tooth bits:
• in terms of the fractional tooth height that
has been worn away, and is reported to the
nearest eighth. (t4: the tooth are 4/8 worn).
• Visual estimate are commonly used
according to a profile chart guide. (next
page)
Tooth wear guide chart
The penetration rate of the bit just before pulling the
bit should not influence the tooth wear evaluation.
3.Bit Evaluation
• For insert bit:
• The tooth wear usually is reported as the
friction of the total number of inserts that
have been broken or lost to the nearest
eighth.
• T4, 4/8 of the inserts are broken or lost.
3.Bit Evaluation
• Grading bearing wear
• It is very difficult
• Usually based on the
number of hours of
bearing life that the
drilling engineer
thought the bearings
will last.
3.Bit Evaluation
• Grading gauge wear
• A ring gauge and a ruler
• GO4: lost 4/8 in.
• Is there exist GI4?
3.Bit Evaluation example
This type of wear occurs
when (1) the drill fluid
contains a high concentration
of abrasive solids,(2) the
circulation rate is extremely
high.
Worse for regular bit than for
jet bits.
Eliminated through the
operation of the drilling fluid
desanders.
3.Bit Evaluation example
This type of wear occurs
when the nose areas of the
cones are worn away or
lost. This frequently occurs
because of excessive loads
being applied to the cone
tips.
Low bit weight and high
rotary speeds.
4. Factors affecting bit wear and drilling speed
• 4.1 factors affecting tooth wear
• 4.2 factors affecting bearing wear
• 4.3 factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.4 terminating a bit run
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• If the time interval of bit use is increased too much, the bit
may break apart leaving junk in the hole. This will required
an additional trip to fish the junk from the hole or may
reduce greatly the efficiency of the next bit if an attempt is
made to drill past the junk. Thus a knowledge of the
instantaneous rate of bit wear is needed to determine how
much the time interval of bit use can be increased safely.
Since practices are not always the same for the new and
old bit runs, a knowledge of how the various drilling
parameters affect the instantaneous rate of bit wear also is
needed.
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• The rate of tooth wear depends primarily on
(1) formation abrasiveness. (2)tooth
geometry.(3)bit weight. (4)rotary speed, and
(5)the cleaning and cooling action of the
drilling fluid.
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• 4.1.1 effect of tooth height on rate of tooth
wearSteel tooth
Steel tooth abrade
rate is directly
proportional to the
area of the tooth in
contact with the
grinding wheel.
4.1.1 effect of tooth height on rate of tooth wear
1 1 y x i
w w A · =
The bit tooth initially has
a contact area given by
After removal of
certain tooth height,
the area are given by
4.1.1 effect of tooth height on rate of tooth wear
( ) ( )
( )   ( )  
( ) ( ) ( )  
( )( )  
2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1
1 2 1 1 2 1
L
L
h
1 2 1 1 2 1
i
r
h w w w w
h w w w w w w w w
w w h w w w h w
w w
L
L
w w w
L
L
w w w A
y y x x
y y x x x y y x
y y y x x x
y y
i
r
y x x
i
r
x y x
· ÷ ÷ +
· ÷ + ÷ + · =
÷ + · ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷ + ·
(
¸
(
¸
÷ + = =
=
4.1.1 effect of tooth height on rate of tooth wear
If we define the geometry constants G
1
and G
2
by
( ) ( )  
( )( )  
( ) G 1
by expressed be can A area contact then
G
2
2 1
1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 1
h G h A A
A w w w w
A w w w w w w G
i
i y y x x
i y y x x x y
+ + =
· ÷ ÷ =
· ÷ + ÷ =
4.1.1 effect of tooth height on rate of tooth wear
• Since the instantaneous wear rate dh/dt is
proportional to the inverse of the contact area A
( )
( )
2
2 1
2
2 1
1
1
1
1
h G h G dt
dh
h G h G
A
dt
dh
s
dt
dh
A
i
s
i
+ +

.

\

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ +
·

.

\

=
4.1.1 effect of tooth height on rate of tooth wear
( ) h H dt
dh
dt
dh
s 2
1
1
+

.

\

·
The simplified
equation is
Recall that a casehardened bit tooth or a tooth
with hard facing on one side often will have a self
sharpening type of tooth wear, a constant H
2
can
be selected too
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• 4.1.1 tooth heightPDC blank: the cutter contact
area is proportional to the length of the chord.
( ) 2 / sin
1

c s
d dt
dh
dt
dh

.

\

·
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• 4.1.2 Bit weight: Galle and Woods published one of
the first equations for predicting the effect of bit weight
on the instantaneous rate of tooth wear. The relation is
given by
0 . 10 and inches, in diameter bit d
units lbm  1,000 in bit weight
log 1
1
b
( =
=


.

\

÷
=·
b
b
d W
W
where
d
W
dt
dh
4.1factors affecting tooth wear


.

\

÷

.

\

·
b
s
d
W
dt
dh
dt
dh
log 1
3979 . 0
The wear rate at various bit weight can be
expressed in terms of a standard wear rate that
would occur for a bit weight of 4,000 lbf/in. Thus,
the wear rate relative to this standard wear rate is
given by
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
b
m
b
d
W
d
W
dt
dh
÷


.

\

·
1
Note that dh/dt becomes infinite for
W/d
b
=10,this equation predicts the teeth
would fail instantaneously if 10,000 lbf/in. of
bit diameter were applied. Another relation is
given by :
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷


.

\


.

\

·
b
m
b
m
b
s
d
W
d
W
d
W
dt
dh
dt
dh
4
Expressing this relation in terms of a
standard wear rate at 4,000lbf/in. of bit
diameter yields
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• P146 table 5.7
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• 4.1.3 Rotary speedfor milledtooth bits
designed for use in soft formations.
1
60
H
s
N
dt
dh
dt
dh

.

\


.

\

·
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• 4.1.4 Hydraulics
the effect of the cooling and cleaning action
of the drilling fluid on the cutter wear rate is
much more important for diamond or PDC
bit than the rolling cutter bit, but no
mathematical models
4.1factors affecting tooth wear
• 4.1.5 tooth wear equation: the instantaneous rate
of tooth wear is given by


.

\

+
+
·
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷


.

\

÷


.

\


.

\

=
h H
H
d
W
d
W
d
W
N
dt
dh
b
m
b
m
b
H
H 2
2
1
2 1
4
60
1
1
t
4.1.5 tooth wear equation
• Recommended values of H
1
,H
2
, and (W/db)
m
are shown as follows:
• P146 TABLE5.8
4.1.5 tooth wear equation
• Define a tooth wear parameter J
2
using


.

\

+

.

\

(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\



.

\

÷


.

\

=
2 1
1 60
4
2
1
H N
d
W
d
W
d
W
J
H
m
b
b
m
b
2
4.1.5 tooth wear equation
The tooth wear equation can be expressed by
( )
} }
+ =
b
f
t
h
H
dh h H J dt
0 0
2 2
1 t
Integration of this equation yields
( ) 2 /
2
2 2 f f H b
h H h J t + = t
4.1.5 tooth wear equation
• Solving for the abrasiveness constant τ
H
gives
( ) 2 /
2
2 2 f f
b
H
h H h J
t
+
= t
An example to tooth wear equation
• An 8.5in. class 131 bit drilled from a depth of
8,179 to 8,404 ft in 10.5 hours. The average bit
weight and rotary speed use for the bit run was
45,000lbf and 90 rpm, respectively. When the bit
was pulled, it was graded T5, B4, GI. Compute
the average formation abrasiveness for this depth
interval. Also estimate the time required to dull
the teeth completely using the same bit weight and
rotary speed.
An example to tooth wear equation
• Solution. Using table in page 93 we obtain
H
1
=1.84, H
2
=6, and (W/db)
m
=8.0. using
equation in page 94 we obtain
08 . 0
2 / 6 1
1
90
60
0 . 4 0 . 8
5 . 8 45 0 . 8
84 . 1
2
=
+
·

.

\

÷
÷
= J
An example to tooth wear equation
• Solving for the abrasiveness constant using
a final fraction tooth dullness of 5/8(0.625)
gives
( )  
hours
hours
H
0 . 73
2 / 625 . 0 6 625 . 0 080 . 0
5 . 10
2
=
+
= t
An example to tooth wear equation
• The time required to dull the teeth
completely (h
f
=1.0) can be obtained by
( )
( ) ( )  
hours 4 . 23
2 / 1 6 1 73.0 0.08
2 /
2
2
2 2
=
+ =
+ =
f f H b
h H h J t t
4.2factors affecting bearing wear
• The prediction of bearing wear is much more difficult than
the prediction of tooth wear. Like tooth wear, the
instantaneous rate of bearing wear depends on the current
condition of the bit. After the bearing surface become
damaged, the rate of bearing wear increases greatly.
However, since the bearing surface cannot be examined
readily during the dull bit evaluation, a liner rate of bearing
wear usually is assumed. For a given applied force, the
bearing life can be expressed in terms of total revolution as
long as the rotary speed is low enough to prevent an
excessive temperature increase. Thus, bit bearing life
usually is assumed to vary linearly with rotary speed.
4.2factors affecting bearing wear
• The effect of bit weight on bearing life depends on
the number and type of bearings used and whether
or not the bearings are sealed.
• The hydraulic action of the drilling fluid at the bit
is also thought to have some effect on bearing life.
As flow rate increase, the ability of the fluid to
cool the bearings also increases. It is believed that
flow rate sufficient to lift cuttings will also be
sufficient to prevent excessive temperature
buildup in the bearings.
4.2factors affecting bearing wear
• However hydraulic horsepower values
above 4.5hp/sq in. can be detrimental to
bearing life.
• A bearing wear formula frequently used to
estimate bearing life is given by
4.2factors affecting bearing wear
hours constant, bearing
and exponents, wear B
inches diameter, bit d
1,000lbf , bit weight W
rpm speed, rotary N
, t
consumed been has that life bearing fractional b
4 60
1
B
2 1,
b
2
1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=


.

\


.

\

=
t
t
bearing B
hours time
where
d
W N
dt
db
B
b
B
B
4.2factors affecting bearing wear
• Define a bearing wear
parameter J3 using
2 1
4 60
3
B
b
B
W
d
N
J

.

\


.

\

=
4.2factors affecting bearing wear
• Then the bearing wear formula can be
expressed by
bit the pulling after
observed wear bearing final the is b
where
f
0 0
3
} }
=
b
f
t
b
B
db J dt t
4.2factors affecting bearing wear
Integration of the equation above yields
f B b
b J t t
3
=
Solving for the bearing constant
gives
f
b
B
b J
t
3
= t
An example to bearing wear equation
• Compute the bearing constant for a 7.875
in., class 616(sealed journal bearings) bit
that was graded T5, B6, GI after drilling
64 hours at 30,000lbf and 70 rpm.
Solution. Get B
1
=1.6 and B
2
=1.0
An example to bearing wear equation
• Using equation in
page 105 we obtain
( )
820 . 0
30
875 . 7 4
70
60
0 . 1 6 . 1
3
=
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

= J
An example to bearing wear equation
• Solving for the bearing constant
using b
f
=6/8 yields
hours 104
) 0.820(0.75
hours 64
= =
B
t
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• The most important variables affecting
penetration rate that have been identified
and studied include (1) bit type,
(2)formation characteristics, (3)drilling fluid
properties, (4)bit operating conditions, (5)
bit tooth wear, and (6) bit hydraulics
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.1 bit type
• For rolling cutter bits:long tooth and a large cone
offset angle will get high rate in soft formation
• Drag bit are designed to obtain a given penetration
rate.
• The diamond and PDC bits are designed for a
given penetration per revolution by selection of
the size and number of blades
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.2 formation characteristics
Elastic limit and ultimate strength are two
main formation properties affect the
penetration rate.
permeability of the formation and the
mineral composition of the rock
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.3 drilling fluid properties
density
rheological flow properties
filtration characteristics
solids content and size distribution
chemical composition
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.4 operating conditions
• Penetration rate vs. Bit weight
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• No significant penetration rate is obtained until the
threshold bit weight is applied (point a). Penetration rate
then increase rapidly with increasing values of bit weight
(segment ab). A liner curve is often observed at moderate
bit weights (segment bc). However, at higher values of bit
weight, subsequent increase in bit weight causes only
slight improvement in penetration rate (segment cd). In
some cases, a decrease in penetration rate is observed at
extremely high values of bit weight (segment de). This
type of behavior often is called bit floundering.
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• Rotary speed vs.
penetration rate
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• Penetration rate usually increases linearly
with rotary speed at low values of rotary
speed. At higher values of rotary speed, the
response of penetration rate to increasing
rotary speed diminishes.
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• Penetration rate relating to bit weight, rotary
speed, bit size, and rock strength is given by
N
d
W
d
W
S
K
R
t
b b
·
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷ =
2
0
2
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• This theoretical relation assumes perfect
bottomhole cleaning and incomplete bit
tooth penetration.
• The theoretical equation of Maurer can be
verified using experimental data obtained at
relatively low bit weight and rotary speeds
corresponding to Segment ab in page 115
and 117
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.5 bit tooth wear. Most bits tends to drill
slower as the bit run progresses because of
tooth wear. The tooth length of milled tooth
is reduced continually by abrasion and
chipping. The insert tooth fail by breaking
or losing rather than abrasion. The same as
the diamond bits.
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• For rollingcutter bits. Model of tooth wear on
penetration rate is
) sharpening  self (0.5 exponent an a
away been worn has that
height tooth fractional the h
1 6 92815 . 0
1
7
2
7
=
=

.

\

+ +
·
where
h h
R
a
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
h a
e R
7
÷
·
Anther similar but less complex
relationship is given by
a
7
is determined based on the observed decline
of penetration rate with tooth wear for previous
bits run under similar conditions.
An example
• An initial penetration rate of 20 ft/hr was observed
in shale at the beginning of a bit run. The previous
bit was identical to the current bit and was
operated under the same conditions of bit weight,
rotary speed, mud density, etc. However, a drilling
rate of 12 ft/hr was observed in the same shale
formation just before pulling the bit. If the
previous bit was graded T6, compute the
approximate value of a
7
.
An example
• Solution. The value of h for the previous bit just
before the end of the bit run is 6/8 or 0.75. The
value of h for the now bit is zero. Thus, for the
relation given we have
( ) ( ) 75 . 0 0
7 7
7
12 and 20
a a
h a
Ke Ke
Ke R
÷ ÷
÷
= =
=
An example
• Dividing the first equation by the second yields
7
75 . 0
12
20
a
e =
Taking the natural logarithm of both sides and
solving for a7 gives
( )
68 . 0
75 . 0
12 20 ln
7
= = a
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.6 bit hydraulics
• drilling practice showed that significant
improvement in penetration rate could be
achieved through an improved jetting action at the
bit. The improved jetting action promoted better
cleaning of the bit teeth as well as the hole bottom.
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.6 bit hydraulics. Relation between bit
hydraulics and penetration rate
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• Eckel found that penetration rate could be correlated to
a Reynolds number group given by
1 
a
Re
seconds 10,000 at fluid drilling
of iscosity apparent v
and diameter, nozzle
rate flow
density fluid drilling
constant scaling a
=
=
=
=
=
=
µ
µ
µ
µ
d
v
K where
vd
K N
a
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.7 penetration rate equation
• For drag bit. All the drag bit are designed to
achieve a given maximum penetration per
revolution. Under ideal condition, the bit weight
and rotary speed is such that the bit is kept feeding
into the formation at the design cutting rate. The
penetration rate of a drag bit for a given
penetration of the cutting element into the
formation is given by
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
speed rotary
and blades, of number effictive
element. cutting each
of n penetratio effective
=
=
=
=
N
n
L
where
N n L R
be
pe
be pe
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• The equations were derived for a simplified model
which assumed the following.
1. The bit has a flat face that is perpendicular to
the axis of the hole.
2. Each blade is formed by diamonds laid out as
a helix.
3. The stones are spherical is shape.
4. The diamonds are spaced so that the cross
sectional area removed per stone is a maximum
for the design depth of penetration.
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
5. The bit is operated at the design depth of
penetration.
6. The bit hydraulics are sufficient for
perfect bottomhole cleaning.
For these conditions, the effective
penetration and the effective number of
blades are given by
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
2
92 . 1
67 . 0
p p c b
d
c
be
p pe
L L d d
s
C
n
and
L L
÷


.

\

=
=
An example
• An 8.625in. diamond bit containing 270
0.23in.diameter stones of 1.00 carat is
designed to operate at a depth of penetration
of 0.01 in. Estimate the penetration rate
that could be obtained with this bit if the
formation characteristics are such that an
acceptable bit weight and torque for this
penetration could be maintained at a rotary
speed of 200 rpm.
An example
• Solution. Ignoring the bit contouring required
for proper hydraulic action and gauge protection,
the bit is assumed to have a flat face that is
perpendicular to the axis of the hole. Thus .
( )
in. stones/sq 621 . 4
625 . 8
4
270
2
= =
t
d
c
s
C
An example
• The effective number of blades is given by
( )( ) ( ) ( )
3.59
01 . 0 01 . 0 23 . 0 625 . 8 4.621 1.92
92 . 1
2
2
=
÷ × =
÷


.

\

=
p p c b
d
c
be
L L d d
s
C
n
The effective penetration is given by
( ) . in 0067 . 0 01 . 0 67 . 0 = =
pe
L
An example
• The penetration rate at a rotary speed of 200
rpm is given by
( )( )
ft/hr 24
200 60 59 . 3
12
0067 . 0
=
× = = N n L R
be pe
4.3factors affecting penetration rate
• 4.3.7 penetration rate equation
• For rolling cutter bits
) )...( )( )( )( (
4 3 2 1 n
f f f f f R =
5. Bit Operation
• Items of primary concern include:
(1)selection of bottomhole assembly
(2)prevention of accidental bit damage
(3)selection of bit weight and rotary speed
(4)bit run termination
proper attention to all of these items must be
given to approach a minimumcost drilling
operation
5. Bit Operation
• 5.1 Bottomhole assembly
1) the length of drill collars
2) proper number of stabilizers
prevent: severe shock loading on teeth, bearings,
and grease seals of rolling cutter bit; on diamond
or PDC cutters and uneven fluid distribution
beneath diamond bit; a belowgauge borehole
diameter; crooked borehole.
3) shock subs—dampen the shock loads
5. Bit Operation
5. Bit Operation
• 5.2 prevention of accidental bit damage
1) breaker plate
2) tight spots
3) establish fluid circulation first
5. Bit Operation
• 5.3 selection of bit weight and rotary speed.
In selecting the bit weight and rotary speed to
be used in drilling a given formation,
consideration must be given to these items;
• (1)the effect of the selected operating
conditions on the cost per foot for the bit run
in question and on subsequent bit runs.
Bit Operation
• (2) the effect of the selected operating
conditions on crooked hole problems.
• (3) the maximum desired penetration rate
for the fluid circulating rates and mud
processing rates available and for efficient
kick detection, and
Bit Operation
(4) equipment limitations on the available bit
weight and rotary speed.
• One straightforward technique that can be
used to determine the best constant
weight/speed schedule is to generate a cost
perfoot table.
Bit Operation
• Costperfoot table
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