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# PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

PRESSURE
Pressure (the symbol: P) is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
The measurement and control of fluid pressure is important in process industries. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure. A pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gases or liquids A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a functionof the pressure imposed. For the purposes of this article, such a signal is electrical.

Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday applications. Pressure sensors can also be used to indirectly measure other variables such as fluid/gas flow, speed, water level, and altitude

## PRESSURE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT

THE 3 MAIN METHODS OF MEASURING ARE
1. LIQUID COLUMN METHODS
Manometer 2. ELASTIC ELEMENT METHODS Bourdon tubes Bellows Diaphragm 3. ELECTRICAL METHODS

## Strain gauges Piezoelectircal tranducers

Piezoresistive transducers

LIQUID-COLUMN METHODS
Liquid-column pressure-measuring devices are those in which the pressure being measured is balanced against the pressure exerted by a

## column of liquid. If the density of the liquid is

known, the height of the liquid column is a

## measure of the pressure.

MANOMETER
A Manometer is a device which can be used to measure pressure of fluids(i.e liquids and Gases). PRINCIPLE: Manometers are those pressure measuring devices which are based on the principle of balancing the column of liquid(whose pressure is to be found) by the same or another column of liquid. They are of two types 1. simple manometers 2.Differential manometers simple manometers are those which measure pressure at a point in a fluid containing in the pipe or a vessel. On the other hand Differential manometers measure the difference of pressure between any two points in a fluid contained in a pipe or vessel.

APPLICATIONS OF MANOMETER
Pressure guages are used for a variety of industrial and application specific pressure monitering applications. visual monitering of air and gas pressure for compressors,Vaccum equipment and speciality tank applications such as medical gas cylinders, fire extin

Liquid column gauges consist of a vertical column of liquid in a tube whose ends are exposed to different pressures. The column will rise or fall until its weight is in equilibrium with the pressure differential between the two ends of the tube. A very simple version is a Ushaped tube half-full of liquid, one side of which is connected to the region of interest while the reference pressure (which might be the atmospheric pressure or a vacuum) is applied to the other. The difference in liquid level represents the applied pressure. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height h and density is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation, P = hg. Therefore the pressure difference between the applied pressure Pa and the reference pressure P0 in a U-tube manometer can be found by solving Pa P0 = hg. In other words, the pressure on either end of the liquid (shown in blue in the figure to the right) must be balanced (since the liquid is static) and so Pa = P0 + hg.

ELASTIC-ELEMENT METHODS
Elastic-element pressure-measuring devices are those in which the measured pressure deforms some elastic material (usually metallic) within its elastic limit, the magnitude of the deformation being approximately proportional to the applied pressure. These devices may be loosely classified into three types: Bourdon tube Bellows Diaphragm.

DIAPHRAGM

DIAPHRAGM
WORKING PRINCIPLE: Diaphragm elements may be classified into two principal types:
those that utilize the elastic characteristics of the diaphragm and those that are opposed by a spring or other separate elastic element.

The first type usually consists of one or more capsules, each composed of two diaphragms bonded together by soldering, brazing, or welding. The diaphragms are flat or corrugated circular metallic disks. Metals commonly used in diaphragm elements include brass, phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, and stainless steel. The second type of diaphragm is used for containing the pressure and exerting a force on the opposing elastic element. The diaphragm is a flexible or slack diaphragm of rubber, leather, impregnated fabric, or plastic. Movement of the diaphragm is opposed by a spring that determines the deflection for a given pressure.

DIAPHRAGM
Advantages Very sensitive. Can measure fractional pressure differences over a very minute range. Requires less space

DIAPHRAGM
Applications
This type of diaphragm is used for the measurement of extremely low pressure, vacuum, or differential

pressure.
They are commonly used in very corrosive environments

ELECTRICAL METHODS
The various electrical methods for pressure measurements are: Strain gauges Peizoresistive transducers Peizoelectric transducers

STRAIN GAUGE

STRAIN GAUGE
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Devices utilizing resistance wire grids for measuring small distortions in elastically stressed materials are commonly called strain gauges. When a wire or other electrical conductor is stretched elastically, its length is increased and its diameter is decreased. Both of these dimensional changes result in an increase in the electrical resistance of the conductor.

STRAIN GAUGE
Types of strain gauges Bonded Unbonded. Bonded strain gauges are those which are bonded directly to the surface of the elastic element whose strain is to be measured. The unbonded-strain-gauge transducer consists of a fixed frame and an armature which moves with respect to the frame in response to the measured pressure.

STRAIN GAUGE
Applications Strain gauges are a useful tool to measure small strains in mechanical parts. Strain gauges are generally inexpensive, easy to install, and provide accurate results

STRAIN GAUGES
The cost of the strain gage is relatively low and readily available in a variety of shapes, sizes and materials. Strain gages are very stable and transducers retain their calibration and performance over extended periods of time. Strain gages have excellent repeatability and linearity over a wide range of strains. The strain gage changes resistance with strain; increasing under tensile strains and decreasing when in compression. Since it is essentially insensitive to supply voltage frequency, it can be used with AC or DC systems.

PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS

CONSTRUCTION
Many factors, including material, mechanical and electrical construction, and the external mechanical and electrical load conditions, influence the behaviour of a transducer. Mechanical construction includes parameters such as the radiation surface area, mechanical damping, housing, connector type and other variables of physical construction.

DIAGRAM

WORKING
The active element is basically a piece of polarized material (i.e. some parts of the molecule are positively charged, while other parts of the molecule are negatively charged) with electrodes attached to two of its opposite faces. When an electric field is applied across the material, the polarized molecules will align themselves with the electric field, resulting in induced dipoles within the molecular or crystal structure of the material. This alignment of molecules will cause the material to change dimensions. This phenomenon is known as electrostriction. In addition, a permanently-polarized material such as quartz (SiO2) or barium titanate (BaTiO3) will produce an electric field when the material changes dimensions as a result of an imposed mechanical force. This phenomenon is known as the piezoelectric effect.

APPLICATIONS
These transducers are used in SONOGRAPHY (SONAR) ULTRASOUND IN SPEAKERS FORCE-GAUGE SCANNING TUNNELLING MICROSCOPY

PIEZORESISTIVE TRANSDUCERS

CONSTRUCTION
A piezoresistive sensor is a resistor circuit constructed on a thin silicon wafer. Physically flexing or distorting the wafer a small amount changes its resistance. This type of sensor is usually used as a pressure sensing device such as a manifold pressure sensor. Within the sensor is a silicon chip combined with a vacuum chamber. One side of the chip is exposed to intake manifold pressure and the other side to the internal perfect vacuum in chamber.

DIAGRAM

WORKING
A permanent magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the resonating sensor. An AC current causes the resonator to vibrate, and the resonant frequency is a function of the pressure (tension) of the resonator. The principal advantages of piezoresistive transducers are a much higher bridge voltage output and smaller size. Full-scale output voltages of 50 to 100 mV/V of excitation are typical. Some newer devices provide digital rather than analog output.

APPLICATIONS
These transducers are used in AIR-PRESSURE DETECTION OIL LEVEL BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT WASHING MACHINES DISHWASHERS VACUUM CLEANERS

Group Members
Ronak-definition of pressure, Classification of pressure measurement, manometer Aabhas- Bourdon tubes, Bellows Saumya- diaphragm, strain gauges Kankana- Piezoresistive transducers, Piezoelectric transducers

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