This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Pressure (the symbol: P) is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. • Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.
• The measurement and control of fluid pressure is important in process industries. • Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure. • A pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gases or liquids • A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a functionof the pressure imposed. For the purposes of this article, such a signal is electrical.
• Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday applications. • Pressure sensors can also be used to indirectly measure other variables such as fluid/gas flow. speed. and altitude . water level.
ELECTRICAL METHODS Strain gauges Piezoelectircal tranducers Piezoresistive transducers . ELASTIC ELEMENT METHODS Bourdon tubes Bellows Diaphragm 3.PRESSURE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT • THE 3 MAIN METHODS OF MEASURING ARE 1. LIQUID COLUMN METHODS Manometer 2.
. the height of the liquid column is a measure of the pressure. If the density of the liquid is known.LIQUID-COLUMN METHODS • Liquid-column pressure-measuring devices are those in which the pressure being measured is balanced against the pressure exerted by a column of liquid.
MANOMETER • A Manometer is a device which can be used to measure pressure of fluids(i.Differential manometers • simple manometers are those which measure pressure at a point in a fluid containing in the pipe or a vessel. . • PRINCIPLE: Manometers are those pressure measuring devices which are based on the principle of balancing the column of liquid(whose pressure is to be found) by the same or another column of liquid.e liquids and Gases). simple manometers • 2. They are of two types • 1. On the other hand Differential manometers measure the difference of pressure between any two points in a fluid contained in a pipe or vessel.
Vaccum equipment and speciality tank applications such as medical gas cylinders. visual monitering of air and gas pressure for compressors.APPLICATIONS OF MANOMETER • Pressure guages are used for a variety of industrial and application specific pressure monitering applications. fire extin .
the pressure on either end of the liquid (shown in blue in the figure to the right) must be balanced (since the liquid is static) and so Pa = P0 + hgρ. A very simple version is a Ushaped tube half-full of liquid. The column will rise or fall until its weight is in equilibrium with the pressure differential between the two ends of the tube. . The difference in liquid level represents the applied pressure. Therefore the pressure difference between the applied pressure Pa and the reference pressure P0 in a U-tube manometer can be found by solving Pa − P0 = hgρ.• Liquid column gauges consist of a vertical column of liquid in a tube whose ends are exposed to different pressures. In other words. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height h and density ρ is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation. P = hgρ. one side of which is connected to the region of interest while the reference pressure (which might be the atmospheric pressure or a vacuum) is applied to the other.
ELASTIC-ELEMENT METHODS • Elastic-element pressure-measuring devices are those in which the measured pressure deforms some elastic material (usually metallic) within its elastic limit. . • These devices may be loosely classified into three types: • Bourdon tube • Bellows • Diaphragm. the magnitude of the deformation being approximately proportional to the applied pressure.
phosphor bronze. each composed of two diaphragms bonded together by soldering. beryllium copper. impregnated fabric. leather. or welding. The diaphragm is a flexible or slack diaphragm of rubber. and stainless steel. • The first type usually consists of one or more capsules. Movement of the diaphragm is opposed by a spring that determines the deflection for a given pressure. brazing. Metals commonly used in diaphragm elements include brass.DIAPHRAGM WORKING PRINCIPLE: • Diaphragm elements may be classified into two principal types: • those that utilize the elastic characteristics of the diaphragm and • those that are opposed by a spring or other separate elastic element. or plastic. • The second type of diaphragm is used for containing the pressure and exerting a force on the opposing elastic element. The diaphragms are flat or corrugated circular metallic disks. .
• Requires less space .DIAPHRAGM • Advantages • Very sensitive. Can measure fractional pressure differences over a very minute range.
or differential pressure. • They are commonly used in very corrosive environments .DIAPHRAGM • Applications • This type of diaphragm is used for the measurement of extremely low pressure. vacuum.
ELECTRICAL METHODS • The various electrical methods for pressure measurements are: • Strain gauges • Peizoresistive transducers • Peizoelectric transducers .
STRAIN GAUGE .
.STRAIN GAUGE • WORKING PRINCIPLE • Devices utilizing resistance wire grids for measuring small distortions in elastically stressed materials are commonly called strain gauges. its length is increased and its diameter is decreased. • When a wire or other electrical conductor is stretched elastically. Both of these dimensional changes result in an increase in the electrical resistance of the conductor.
• Bonded strain gauges are those which are bonded directly to the surface of the elastic element whose strain is to be measured. • The unbonded-strain-gauge transducer consists of a fixed frame and an armature which moves with respect to the frame in response to the measured pressure.STRAIN GAUGE • Types of strain gauges • Bonded • Unbonded. .
STRAIN GAUGE Applications • Strain gauges are a useful tool to measure small strains in mechanical parts. and provide accurate results . easy to install. • Strain gauges are generally inexpensive.
Since it is essentially insensitive to supply voltage frequency. increasing under tensile strains and decreasing when in compression. . • Strain gages have excellent repeatability and linearity over a wide range of strains. • The strain gage changes resistance with strain. sizes and materials. • Strain gages are very stable and transducers retain their calibration and performance over extended periods of time. it can be used with AC or DC systems.STRAIN GAUGES • ADVANTAGES • The cost of the strain gage is relatively low and readily available in a variety of shapes.
PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS .
housing. including material. . Mechanical construction includes parameters such as the radiation surface area. and the external mechanical and electrical load conditions. connector type and other variables of physical construction. influence the behaviour of a transducer. mechanical damping. mechanical and electrical construction.CONSTRUCTION • Many factors.
When an electric field is applied across the material. the polarized molecules will align themselves with the electric field. a permanently-polarized material such as quartz (SiO2) or barium titanate (BaTiO3) will produce an electric field when the material changes dimensions as a result of an imposed mechanical force.e. This phenomenon is known as electrostriction. In addition. This phenomenon is known as the piezoelectric effect. . This alignment of molecules will cause the material to change dimensions. while other parts of the molecule are negatively charged) with electrodes attached to two of its opposite faces.WORKING • The active element is basically a piece of polarized material (i. resulting in induced dipoles within the molecular or crystal structure of the material. some parts of the molecule are positively charged.
APPLICATIONS These transducers are used in• • • • • SONOGRAPHY (SONAR) ULTRASOUND IN SPEAKERS FORCE-GAUGE SCANNING TUNNELLING MICROSCOPY .
PIEZORESISTIVE TRANSDUCERS .
Physically flexing or distorting the wafer a small amount changes its resistance. This type of sensor is usually used as a pressure sensing device such as a manifold pressure sensor. • Within the sensor is a silicon chip combined with a vacuum chamber.CONSTRUCTION • A piezoresistive sensor is a resistor circuit constructed on a thin silicon wafer. One side of the chip is exposed to intake manifold pressure and the other side to the internal perfect vacuum in chamber. .
Full-scale output voltages of 50 to 100 mV/V of excitation are typical. An AC current causes the resonator to vibrate. The principal advantages of piezoresistive transducers are a much higher bridge voltage output and smaller size.WORKING • A permanent magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the resonating sensor. and the resonant frequency is a function of the pressure (tension) of the resonator. . Some newer devices provide digital rather than analog output.
APPLICATIONS These transducers are used in• • • • • • AIR-PRESSURE DETECTION OIL LEVEL BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT WASHING MACHINES DISHWASHERS VACUUM CLEANERS .
strain gauges • Kankana.Piezoresistive transducers.Bourdon tubes. manometer • Aabhas. Classification of pressure measurement. Piezoelectric transducers .diaphragm. Bellows • Saumya.Group Members • Ronak-definition of pressure.
THANK YOU .