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Power Factor Improvement

Power Supply

Input kW/Motor Loading


Power Factor

BASIC FORMULA

kVA2 = kW2 + kVAR2 kW = (kVA2 - kVAR2)0.5 kVAR = (kVA2 - kW2)0.5 power factor (pf) = kW/kVA kVA = (V x A)/1000

Typical Inductive Load

kwh

Supply
rkvah

ENERGY

Active - energy that does real or useful work - measured in kilowatthours (kWh)

ENERGY
Reactive - energy that does no useful work, current is out of phase w/ voltage - used by inductive loads to sustain their magnetic fields - measured in reactive kilovoltampere hours (rkVah)

Power Factor (PF)

-a way of measuring the percentage of energy that is actually doing useful work in an electrical system

kWh

Power Factor =
2 2

x 100%
kWh + rkvah

Disadvantages of Low PF
kwh Supply

rkvah

-monthly utility surcharges


-increased equipment cost due to extra capacity

-increased conductor and transformer losses -low voltage

PF Improvement by Capacitor Installation

kwh

Supply
rkvah Capacitors

Advantages of Capacitors

No rotating parts that wear out

Negligible losses Relatively safe Small & doesnt require foundation


Minimal maintenance

Benefits of Capacitors
1. Increased Current-carrying capacity Decreases size of conductors required in carrying the same 100kW load at P. F. ranging from 70% to 100%. Allows further loading of transformer 2. Improved voltage to equipment Reduced current carried also means reduced voltage drops. Hence the equipment receives improved voltage. % Voltage rise = Capacitor kVAR x (Transformer % Impedence) Transformer kVA (Note: Transformer impedance is available in transformer test certificate) 3. Reduced power losses As current flows through conductors, the conductors get heated. This heating results in power loss. The Power loss is proportional to current squared (P Loss =I2R) Current is proportional to P. F.: Conductor loss can account for as much as 2 - 5% of total load Capacitors can reduce losses by 1- 2% of the total load % Loss reduction = 1 - [(Original PF)2/(Desired PF)2] x 100%

PF Improvement
1. Reduce Power Factor Penalties
0.6% surcharge for every percentage point
lower than 85% x ( Transm. + Dist. Charges)

ex. (85-75) x 0.6% = 6% 6% x ( Transm. + Dist. Charges)

0.3% discount for every percentage point higher than 85% x (Transm. + Dist. Charges) ex. (95-85) x 0.3% = 3% 3% x ( Transm. + Dist. Charges)

Capacitor Rating
kVAr = Demand (kW) * [ Tan ( Cos-1 PF1 ) - Tan( Cos-1 PF2 )]
Where:

Demand - The maximum demand quoted in the utility bill in kW


PF1 - Current power factor from the utility bill before installation of capacitors - Desired power factor after the installation of capacitors

PF2

Capacitor Rating
Demand = 1,000 kW PF = 75% Desired PF = 95%
kVAr = Demand (kW) * [ Tan ( Cos-1 PF1 ) - Tan( Cos-1 PF2 )]

= 1000 [ Tan (Cos-1 0.75) - Tan(Cos-1 0.95)] = 550

Multiplication Factors for the Selection of Capacitor Size Requirement.


Original P.F. 1.0 0.95
1.189 1.004 0.840

Desired P.F.
0.90
1.034 0.849 0.685

0.85
0.899 0.714 0.549

0.80
0.763

0.55 0.60 0.65

1.518 1.333 1.169

0.583
0.419

0.70
0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90

1.020
0.882 0.750 0.484 0.328

0.691
0.553 0.421 0.291 0.155

0.536
0.398 0.266 0.136

0.400
0.262 0.130

0.270
0.132

0.95

0.620

Sample Savings
kWh kW Demand Power Factor (% )

(Rough Estimate Only)


300,000 1,000 75% Original PF Proposed PF Correction 75% 95%

Proposed Capacitor kVar Estimated Cap. Cost (P)


SAMPLE PF CHARGE (based on May 2004) Transm. & Dist. Charges =(P291.02 + P124.62) x 1,000 Power Factor Adj.: Penalty = (85-75)(0.6/100)(415,640) Discount = (85-95)(0.3/100)(415,640) 415,640.00 24,938.40

550 825,000.00
415,640.00 -12,469.20

MONTHLY SAVINGS ANNUAL SAVINGS SIMPLE PAYBACK (Years)

37,407.60 448,891.20 1.84

Caution About Harmonics


Presence of non-linear loads Electronic ballasts UPS systems Adjustable/variable speed drives Arc Furnaces

Caution About Harmonics

fundamental waveform (60 Hz)

5th harmonic (300 Hz)

distorted sine wave

Electricity Phases of Electricity


A single phase AC circuit: Has two wires connected to the electricity source The direction of the current changes many times per second Three phase systems: Have 3 waveforms that are 2/3 radians (120 degrees,1/3 of a cycle) offset in time The cycle in the figure above will repeat itself 50-60 times per second

Caution About Harmonics


Engineering study should be conducted
20 % of the connected load is harmonic sources unexplained tripping of protective devices

failures of currently installed capacitors


misoperations of sensitive equipment motor failures

overheating of transformers

Harmonic Mitigation Options


Detuning by changing size of capacitor bank
or adding reactor to system Installing filters

Using automatic Power Factor controllers

Thank You !