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Montero, SRS II Philippine Council for Industry, Energy, and Emerging Technology Research and Development (PCIEERD) Department of Science and Technology (DOST

Outline

Objectives and scope of the topic Definition of terms Guiding principles Methods of measurement Energy saving opportunities

Objectives

To determine the efficiency of electric motors by loss estimation method under operating conditions in the plant where the motor is installed and running or available as spare. To simplify instrumentation so that the test can be conducted with portable instruments and facilities available with plant engineers and energy auditors. To identify energy saving opportunities in electric motors.

Scope

The topic deals with the commonly used electric motor in the industry which is the induction motor. These motors and driven equipments account for more than 90% of energy consumption in the industrial motor driven systems. The methods that will be presented in this topic can be also used for efficiency testing of squirrel cage and slip ring induction motors.

Definition of Terms

Symbol E P t T Pfe Pfw Pk Pcu-st Pcu-rot PS PT Pmech V I Cos f p N Ns s R Description Energy Power Time duration Temperature Core losses Friction and windage losses Constant losses Stator copper loss Rotor copper loss Stray losses Total losses Mechanical power Terminal voltage Current Power factor Frequency Number of poles Speed Synchronous speed slip Average D.C. resistance Efficiency Units kWh Watts (W) or kilowatts (kW) Seconds C W W W W W W W W V I Per unit Hertz (Hz) -RPM RPM Per unit %

A machine that converts electricity to mechanical work.

AC Electric Motors

Asynchronous Inductance Synchronous

Sine Wave

Hysteresis

Brushless PM

Stepper

PM

Wound Field

PM

Hybrid

Var. Reluc.

DC Electric Motors

Homopolar Commutator

Permanent Magnet

Wound Field

Compound

Shunt

Series

Universal

Conduit Box Insulation Wound Stator Fan Bearing Rotor

Rotor Laminations

Shaft Slinger Nameplate

Frame

Shaft

Most electric motors are designed to run at 50% to 100% of rated load. Maximum efficiency is usually near 75% of rated load. A motors efficiency tends to decrease dramatically below about 50% load.

Guiding Principles

METHOD 1

When a motor is not coupled mechanically to any load, but available as spare/newly purchased. In this case, motor efficiency at full load can be estimated. Motor nameplate rating of full load speed and full load output are assumed to be correct. Measurements are done on the motor at no load conditions.

METHOD - 2 When a motor is installed and coupled to driven equipment, say a pump, compressor etc. In addition to the measurements at no load, measurements are also required to be done at the actual operation of the motor on load. In this method, actual speed and power input is measured at load condition and output is estimated from power input and measured losses.

Pre-Audit Requirements

1. Conditions when it is not recommended to conduct the audit: a) If the voltage is fluctuating by more than 5% b) If the difference among phase voltages is more than 15V. c) Frequency is below 48.5 hertz or fluctuating. 2. Ensure that the motors to be tested are in working condition

Pre-Audit Requirements

3. Nameplate information of the motor is required for the tests. Ensure that the nameplate information is clearly visible.

Pre-Audit Requirements

4. Any Variable Frequency drive, voltage controller or soft starter installed at the motor need to be disconnected from the line during measurements. 5. While conducting no load test, ensure that the motor is completely decoupled from the load. 6. If the motor has been in operation prior to no load test, stop the motor, decouple the load and keep the motor idle condition till the motor cools to ambient temperature.

Methods of Measurement

The measurement of following parameters is required for efficiency testing of motor:

1. Power Input (Pi) 2. Current (I) 3. Voltage (V) 4. Frequency (f) 5. Speed (N) 6. Stator Resistance () 7. Ambient Temperature (C)

Methods of Measurement

Power Input (Pi) can be measured by using a calibrated energy meter or power analyzer.

Methods of Measurement

Power input (Pi) for NO LOAD TEST using two (2) wattmeter method

W1

W2

3- Motor

C

Contactor

Total Power = W1 + W2

Methods of Measurement

No Load Test Equivalent Circuit

W1 A

VAB IA

B

W2 C

VBC IC

3- Motor

Contactor

Total Power = W1 + W2

Methods of Measurement

Voltage (V) can be measured on all the three (3) phases by using a voltmeter or power analyzer.

FOR DELTA CONNECTION: FOR WYE CONNECTION:

Vph = VL

Vph = VL/3

Methods of Measurement

Example:

An existing motor is identified as a 40-hp, 1800 rpm unit with an open drip-proof enclosure. The motor is 12-years old and has not been rewound. The following measurements was obtained:

Vab = 467 V Vbc = 473 V Vca = 469 V Ia = 36 A Ib = 38 A Ic = 37 A PFa = 0.75 A PFb = 0.78 A PFc = 0.76 A

Methods of Measurement

Example (Continuation):

I = (36+38+37)/3 = 37 A PF = (0.75+0.78+0.76)/3 = 0.763 Pi = 469.7 x 37 x 0.763 x 3 / 1000 Pi = 22.9 kW

Methods of Measurement

Current (I) can be measured on all the three (3) phases by using a clamp-on ammeter or power analyzer.

FOR DELTA CONNECTION: FOR WYE CONNECTION:

Ip = IL/ h 3

Ip = I

h L

Methods of Measurement

Speed (N) - slip is measured from synchronous speed (Ns) and Operating Speed (NL) as given below:

SLIP CALCULATION SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

SL =

Ns - NL Ns

Ns - NFL Ns

120 x f Ns = p

SFL =

Methods of Measurement

Speed can be measured by using a contact or non-contact tachometer.

Contact Type

Methods of Measurement

Resistance Test

A1

A1 B1 C1

A2

B2

C2

B1

C1

Connection at Motor Terminal Box

Where Rave is the average value of line-to-line resistance to phase resistance obtained.

Methods of Measurement

Resistance Test

A1 B2

A1 B1 C1

A2 C1

B1

B2 C2 A2

Where Rave is the average value of line-to-line resistance to phase resistance obtained is designated as Rave

Methods of Measurement

The resistance measured should be corrected to the operating/full load temperature by using the following relationship.

R2 235 + T2 = R1 235 + T1

R2 = unknown resistance at temperature T2 R1 = resistance measured at temperature T1

Methods of Measurement

Temperature for Insulation Classes - IEC Thermal class of insulation A B F Reference temperature C 75 95 115

H

*Ambient Temp reference is 25C

130

Methods of Measurement

Ambient Air Temperature can be measured by using either mercury in glass thermometer, infrared thermometer or thermocouple with digital indicator

Power Losses

Wound Stator Fan Windage loss (Pfw) Rotor Copper loss (Pcu-rot) Stator loss (Pcu-s) Bearing

Methods of Measurement

Estimation of friction and windage losses by Variable Voltage Testing

Methods of Measurement

If Variable Voltage Testing is not possible, assuming friction & windage losses according to IEC standards is also reasonably correct. For Drip proof motors 0.8% to 1.0% of motor rated output For TEFC motors, friction & windage losses 1 to 1.5% of motor rated ouput

Methods of Measurement

Core losses estimation can be done by subtracting the friction & windage losses from constant losses times the square 2 of rated voltage over the square of measured voltage as shown in the equation.

Pfe = Pk Pfw x

Vrated

Vmeasured

Methods of Measurement

Stray loss estimation - IEC

Methods of Measurement

Stray loss estimation

Stray losses are very difficult to measure with any accuracy under field conditions or even in a laboratory. MOTOR RATING VS. STRAY LOSSES - IEEE

Motor Rating 1 125 HP 125 500 HP 501 2499 HP 2500 and above Stray Losses 1.8 % of rated output 1.5 % 1.2 % 0.9 %

Rated Motor Output = Rated Motor Output + Losses

1. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test, stop the motor, decouple the load from the motor and keep the motor idle till it cools down to ambient temperature. Usually it takes about 2 hours.

2. Measure winding resistance (Rph) at cold conditions. Record the ambient temperature (Ta) 3. Apply voltage across the motor at no load and start the motor 4. Measure line voltage (Vnl), line current (Inl), and frequency (Hz). Otherwise, use the Direct power input (Pi) measurement if power meter is available.

5. Calculate the phase current (Iph) 6. Calculate stator copper loss at no load and subtract this from no load power to get constant losses as shown below.

No load stator Copper loss; Pcu-st = 3 x Iph-nl2 x Rph-nl Constant loss; Pk = Pin Pcu-st

7. Estimate friction & windage losses (Pfw) by using the IEC standards. 8. Estimate Core losses

Pfe = Pk Pfw x

Vrated

Vmeasured

9. Calculate stator winding resistance at full load (i.e. temperature as defined in the class of insulation of IEC)

(235 + TR)

RT = Rph-a x (235 + Ta)

10. Estimate Stator copper losses at full load, assuming nameplate full load current and corrected stator resistance at full load.

Pcu-st-FL = 3 x Iph-FL2 x RT

11. Obtain stray losses as a % of input power from the IEC data

12. Calculate full load slip (SFL) from the rated speed (NFL) and synchronous speed (NS) at the rated frequency

NS NFL NS

SFL =

13. Calculate rotor input power from rotor output at full load

Rotor output

Power input to rotor, Pirot =

(1 SFL)

Note: Rotor output at full load is the nameplate output kW rating of the motor

14. Calculate rotor copper losses from full load slip and rotor input Rotor copper loss, Pcu-rot = SFL x Pirot 15. Total losses at full load is sum of all the above losses PT = Pfw + Pfe + Pcu-st-FL +Ps + Pcu-rot

16. Efficiency () at Full load is obtained from rated output and estimated total losses as:

Rated Motor Output = Rated Motor Output + Losses

=

Motor input power - Losses Motor input power

1. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test for more than one hour, it can be considered to be close to steady operating conditions. In this case, while testing, operation of the motor for 10 to 15 minutes is sufficient to attain steady operation

2. If the motor and load were idle before the test, continuous operation of motor on load for at least 2 hours is recommended to attain steady state conditions. 3. Start the motor with load and bring it up to desired steady operating conditions.

4. Measure line voltage (VL), line current (IL), and frequency (Hz). Otherwise, use the Direct power input (PiL) measurement if power meter is available. 5. Measure operating speed of motor, NL 6. Switch off the motor. Disconnect power supply. Measure DC resistance of the stator (Rph-L) winding immediately after switching off the motor.

7. Decouple motor from the load and allow the motor to cool for at least 2 hours. 8. Repeat Steps 2 to 6 from Method 1 for no load calculation

9. Calculate Stator copper losses at operating load,

Pcu-st-L = 3 x Iph-L2 x Rph-L

10. Calculate Stray losses 11. Calculate rotor input power Pirot = PiL - Pcu-st-L Pk Ps-L

12. Calculate the slip (SL) from the operating speed (NL) and synchronous speed (NS) at the measured frequency

SL = NS NL NS

13. Calculate rotor copper losses from slip and rotor input

Rotor copper loss, Pcu-rot = SL x Pirot

14. Total losses at actual load is sum of all the above losses PT = Pk + Pcu-st-L + Ps + Pcu-rot

15. Efficiency is estimated from estimated output and measured input

PiL - PT = PiL

Slip Method

Slip Method

The slip method for estimating motor load is recommended when only operating speed measurements are available. The synchronous speed of an induction motor depends on the frequency of the power supply and on the number of poles for which the motor is wound.

Slip Method

Example: Slip Load Calculation

Given: Synchronous speed (Ns) in RPM = 1800 Nameplate full load speed (Nr) = 1750 Measured speed in RPM (Nm) = 1770 Nameplate rated horsepower (hp) = 25 Determine the actual output horsepower

Load =

Ns - Nm Ns - Nr

x 100 =

x 100 = 60%

For every 1% increase in motor efficiency, there is about 5 kW power savings. Motors should be Properly size to the load for optimum efficiency. High efficiency motors offer of 4 - 5% higher efficiency than standard motors

Use energy-efficient motors where economical. Use synchronous motors to improve power factor. Check alignment. Provide proper ventilation (For every 10 oC increase in motor operating temperature over recommended peak, the motor life is estimated to be halved) Check for under-voltage and over-voltage conditions. Balance the three-phase power supply. (An imbalanced voltage can reduce 3 - 5% in motor input power) Demand efficiency restoration after motor rewinding. (If rewinding is not done properly, the efficiency can be reduced by 5 - 8%)

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