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Patrick E.

Montero, SRS II Philippine Council for Industry, Energy, and Emerging Technology Research and Development (PCIEERD) Department of Science and Technology (DOST

Outline
Objectives and scope of the topic Definition of terms Guiding principles Methods of measurement Energy saving opportunities

Objectives
To determine the efficiency of electric motors by loss estimation method under operating conditions in the plant where the motor is installed and running or available as spare. To simplify instrumentation so that the test can be conducted with portable instruments and facilities available with plant engineers and energy auditors. To identify energy saving opportunities in electric motors.

Scope
The topic deals with the commonly used electric motor in the industry which is the induction motor. These motors and driven equipments account for more than 90% of energy consumption in the industrial motor driven systems. The methods that will be presented in this topic can be also used for efficiency testing of squirrel cage and slip ring induction motors.

Definition of Terms
Symbol E P t T Pfe Pfw Pk Pcu-st Pcu-rot PS PT Pmech V I Cos f p N Ns s R Description Energy Power Time duration Temperature Core losses Friction and windage losses Constant losses Stator copper loss Rotor copper loss Stray losses Total losses Mechanical power Terminal voltage Current Power factor Frequency Number of poles Speed Synchronous speed slip Average D.C. resistance Efficiency Units kWh Watts (W) or kilowatts (kW) Seconds C W W W W W W W W V I Per unit Hertz (Hz) -RPM RPM Per unit %

What is an electric motor?


A machine that converts electricity to mechanical work.

Electric Motor Principle

DC Motor Schematic Diagram

AC Motor Schematic Diagram

Types of Electric Motors


AC Electric Motors
Asynchronous Inductance Synchronous

Sine Wave

Hysteresis

Brushless PM

Reluctance Wound Field

Stepper

PM

Wound Field

PM

Hybrid

Var. Reluc.

Types of Electric Motors


DC Electric Motors
Homopolar Commutator

Permanent Magnet

Wound Field

Compound

Shunt

Series

Universal

Electric Motor Parts


Conduit Box Insulation Wound Stator Fan Bearing Rotor

Rotor Laminations
Shaft Slinger Nameplate

Frame

Shaft

Facts About Electric Motors


Most electric motors are designed to run at 50% to 100% of rated load. Maximum efficiency is usually near 75% of rated load. A motors efficiency tends to decrease dramatically below about 50% load.

Facts About Electric Motors

Source: U.S. Department of Energy

Motor Part-Load Efficiency (as a Function of % Full-Load Efficiency)

Facts About Electric Motors

Source: U.S. Department of Energy

Motor Power Factor (as a Function of % Full-Load Amperage)

Guiding Principles

Planning the Audit


METHOD 1

When a motor is not coupled mechanically to any load, but available as spare/newly purchased. In this case, motor efficiency at full load can be estimated. Motor nameplate rating of full load speed and full load output are assumed to be correct. Measurements are done on the motor at no load conditions.

Planning the Audit


METHOD - 2 When a motor is installed and coupled to driven equipment, say a pump, compressor etc. In addition to the measurements at no load, measurements are also required to be done at the actual operation of the motor on load. In this method, actual speed and power input is measured at load condition and output is estimated from power input and measured losses.

Pre-Audit Requirements
1. Conditions when it is not recommended to conduct the audit: a) If the voltage is fluctuating by more than 5% b) If the difference among phase voltages is more than 15V. c) Frequency is below 48.5 hertz or fluctuating. 2. Ensure that the motors to be tested are in working condition

Pre-Audit Requirements
3. Nameplate information of the motor is required for the tests. Ensure that the nameplate information is clearly visible.

Pre-Audit Requirements
4. Any Variable Frequency drive, voltage controller or soft starter installed at the motor need to be disconnected from the line during measurements. 5. While conducting no load test, ensure that the motor is completely decoupled from the load. 6. If the motor has been in operation prior to no load test, stop the motor, decouple the load and keep the motor idle condition till the motor cools to ambient temperature.

Methods of Measurement
The measurement of following parameters is required for efficiency testing of motor:
1. Power Input (Pi) 2. Current (I) 3. Voltage (V) 4. Frequency (f) 5. Speed (N) 6. Stator Resistance () 7. Ambient Temperature (C)

Methods of Measurement
Power Input (Pi) can be measured by using a calibrated energy meter or power analyzer.

Methods of Measurement
Power input (Pi) for NO LOAD TEST using two (2) wattmeter method

W1

W2

3- Motor

C
Contactor

Total Power = W1 + W2

Methods of Measurement
No Load Test Equivalent Circuit
W1 A
VAB IA

B
W2 C
VBC IC

3- Motor

Contactor

Total Power = W1 + W2

Methods of Measurement
Voltage (V) can be measured on all the three (3) phases by using a voltmeter or power analyzer.
FOR DELTA CONNECTION: FOR WYE CONNECTION:

Vph = VL

Vph = VL/3

Methods of Measurement
Example:
An existing motor is identified as a 40-hp, 1800 rpm unit with an open drip-proof enclosure. The motor is 12-years old and has not been rewound. The following measurements was obtained:
Vab = 467 V Vbc = 473 V Vca = 469 V Ia = 36 A Ib = 38 A Ic = 37 A PFa = 0.75 A PFb = 0.78 A PFc = 0.76 A

Determine the Power input.

Methods of Measurement
Example (Continuation):

Solution: V = (467+473+469)/3 = 469.7 V


I = (36+38+37)/3 = 37 A PF = (0.75+0.78+0.76)/3 = 0.763 Pi = 469.7 x 37 x 0.763 x 3 / 1000 Pi = 22.9 kW

Methods of Measurement
Current (I) can be measured on all the three (3) phases by using a clamp-on ammeter or power analyzer.
FOR DELTA CONNECTION: FOR WYE CONNECTION:

Ip = IL/ h 3

Ip = I
h L

Methods of Measurement
Speed (N) - slip is measured from synchronous speed (Ns) and Operating Speed (NL) as given below:
SLIP CALCULATION SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

SL =

Ns - NL Ns
Ns - NFL Ns

120 x f Ns = p

SFL =

Methods of Measurement
Speed can be measured by using a contact or non-contact tachometer.

Non Contact Type

Contact Type

Methods of Measurement
Resistance Test
A1
A1 B1 C1

A2

B2

C2

B1

C1
Connection at Motor Terminal Box

WYE Connected Winding

Rph = 0.5 x Rave


Where Rave is the average value of line-to-line resistance to phase resistance obtained.

Methods of Measurement
Resistance Test
A1 B2
A1 B1 C1

A2 C1

B1
B2 C2 A2

C2 Connection at Motor Terminal Box

DELTA Connected Winding

Rph = 1.5 x Rave


Where Rave is the average value of line-to-line resistance to phase resistance obtained is designated as Rave

Methods of Measurement
The resistance measured should be corrected to the operating/full load temperature by using the following relationship.
R2 235 + T2 = R1 235 + T1
R2 = unknown resistance at temperature T2 R1 = resistance measured at temperature T1

Methods of Measurement
Temperature for Insulation Classes - IEC Thermal class of insulation A B F Reference temperature C 75 95 115

H
*Ambient Temp reference is 25C

130

Methods of Measurement
Ambient Air Temperature can be measured by using either mercury in glass thermometer, infrared thermometer or thermocouple with digital indicator

Power Losses
Wound Stator Fan Windage loss (Pfw) Rotor Copper loss (Pcu-rot) Stator loss (Pcu-s) Bearing

Friction loss (Pfw)

Frame Core loss ( Pfe)

Stray loss (Ps)

Methods of Measurement
Estimation of friction and windage losses by Variable Voltage Testing

Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency, India

Sample Plot of Power vs. voltage2 & voltage

Methods of Measurement
If Variable Voltage Testing is not possible, assuming friction & windage losses according to IEC standards is also reasonably correct. For Drip proof motors 0.8% to 1.0% of motor rated output For TEFC motors, friction & windage losses 1 to 1.5% of motor rated ouput

Methods of Measurement
Core losses estimation can be done by subtracting the friction & windage losses from constant losses times the square 2 of rated voltage over the square of measured voltage as shown in the equation.
Pfe = Pk Pfw x

Vrated
Vmeasured

Methods of Measurement
Stray loss estimation - IEC

Methods of Measurement
Stray loss estimation
Stray losses are very difficult to measure with any accuracy under field conditions or even in a laboratory. MOTOR RATING VS. STRAY LOSSES - IEEE
Motor Rating 1 125 HP 125 500 HP 501 2499 HP 2500 and above Stray Losses 1.8 % of rated output 1.5 % 1.2 % 0.9 %

Assumed values for Stray losses IEEE Std 112 -1996

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


Rated Motor Output = Rated Motor Output + Losses

1. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test, stop the motor, decouple the load from the motor and keep the motor idle till it cools down to ambient temperature. Usually it takes about 2 hours.

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


2. Measure winding resistance (Rph) at cold conditions. Record the ambient temperature (Ta) 3. Apply voltage across the motor at no load and start the motor 4. Measure line voltage (Vnl), line current (Inl), and frequency (Hz). Otherwise, use the Direct power input (Pi) measurement if power meter is available.

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


5. Calculate the phase current (Iph) 6. Calculate stator copper loss at no load and subtract this from no load power to get constant losses as shown below.
No load stator Copper loss; Pcu-st = 3 x Iph-nl2 x Rph-nl Constant loss; Pk = Pin Pcu-st

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


7. Estimate friction & windage losses (Pfw) by using the IEC standards. 8. Estimate Core losses
Pfe = Pk Pfw x

Vrated
Vmeasured

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


9. Calculate stator winding resistance at full load (i.e. temperature as defined in the class of insulation of IEC)
(235 + TR)
RT = Rph-a x (235 + Ta)

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


10. Estimate Stator copper losses at full load, assuming nameplate full load current and corrected stator resistance at full load.
Pcu-st-FL = 3 x Iph-FL2 x RT

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


11. Obtain stray losses as a % of input power from the IEC data

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


12. Calculate full load slip (SFL) from the rated speed (NFL) and synchronous speed (NS) at the rated frequency
NS NFL NS

SFL =

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


13. Calculate rotor input power from rotor output at full load
Rotor output
Power input to rotor, Pirot =

(1 SFL)

Note: Rotor output at full load is the nameplate output kW rating of the motor

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


14. Calculate rotor copper losses from full load slip and rotor input Rotor copper loss, Pcu-rot = SFL x Pirot 15. Total losses at full load is sum of all the above losses PT = Pfw + Pfe + Pcu-st-FL +Ps + Pcu-rot

METHOD 1 - Full Load Test


16. Efficiency () at Full load is obtained from rated output and estimated total losses as:
Rated Motor Output = Rated Motor Output + Losses

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


=
Motor input power - Losses Motor input power

1. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test for more than one hour, it can be considered to be close to steady operating conditions. In this case, while testing, operation of the motor for 10 to 15 minutes is sufficient to attain steady operation

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


2. If the motor and load were idle before the test, continuous operation of motor on load for at least 2 hours is recommended to attain steady state conditions. 3. Start the motor with load and bring it up to desired steady operating conditions.

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


4. Measure line voltage (VL), line current (IL), and frequency (Hz). Otherwise, use the Direct power input (PiL) measurement if power meter is available. 5. Measure operating speed of motor, NL 6. Switch off the motor. Disconnect power supply. Measure DC resistance of the stator (Rph-L) winding immediately after switching off the motor.

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


7. Decouple motor from the load and allow the motor to cool for at least 2 hours. 8. Repeat Steps 2 to 6 from Method 1 for no load calculation

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


9. Calculate Stator copper losses at operating load,
Pcu-st-L = 3 x Iph-L2 x Rph-L

10. Calculate Stray losses 11. Calculate rotor input power Pirot = PiL - Pcu-st-L Pk Ps-L

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


12. Calculate the slip (SL) from the operating speed (NL) and synchronous speed (NS) at the measured frequency
SL = NS NL NS

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


13. Calculate rotor copper losses from slip and rotor input
Rotor copper loss, Pcu-rot = SL x Pirot

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


14. Total losses at actual load is sum of all the above losses PT = Pk + Pcu-st-L + Ps + Pcu-rot

METHOD 2 - Operating Load Test


15. Efficiency is estimated from estimated output and measured input
PiL - PT = PiL

Slip Method

Slip Method
The slip method for estimating motor load is recommended when only operating speed measurements are available. The synchronous speed of an induction motor depends on the frequency of the power supply and on the number of poles for which the motor is wound.

Slip Method
Example: Slip Load Calculation
Given: Synchronous speed (Ns) in RPM = 1800 Nameplate full load speed (Nr) = 1750 Measured speed in RPM (Nm) = 1770 Nameplate rated horsepower (hp) = 25 Determine the actual output horsepower

Load =

Ns - Nm Ns - Nr

x 100 =

1800 - 1770 1800 - 1750

x 100 = 60%

Actual output horsepower would be 60% x 25 hp = 15 hp

Energy Saving Opportunities


For every 1% increase in motor efficiency, there is about 5 kW power savings. Motors should be Properly size to the load for optimum efficiency. High efficiency motors offer of 4 - 5% higher efficiency than standard motors

Energy Saving Opportunities


Use energy-efficient motors where economical. Use synchronous motors to improve power factor. Check alignment. Provide proper ventilation (For every 10 oC increase in motor operating temperature over recommended peak, the motor life is estimated to be halved) Check for under-voltage and over-voltage conditions. Balance the three-phase power supply. (An imbalanced voltage can reduce 3 - 5% in motor input power) Demand efficiency restoration after motor rewinding. (If rewinding is not done properly, the efficiency can be reduced by 5 - 8%)

Thank You