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BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS

What is blood gas analysis? Purpose? Procedure, preparation, aftercare? Normal and abnormal results?

BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS


Known as arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. A procedure to measure the partial pressure of Oxygen (O2 ) and the carbon dioxide gases (CO2 ) and the pH(Hyrdrogen ion concentration) in arterial blood.

PURPOSE

Evaluates how effectively the lungs are delivering O2 to the blood and How effectively they are eliminating CO2 from it. The test also indicates how well the lungs and kidneys are interacting to maintain normal blood pH(acid-base balance).

Procedure

The blood sample is obtained by arterial puncture(usually in the wrist,although it could be in the groin arm Or from an arterial line already in place. If a puncture is needed,the skin over the artery is cleaned with antiseptic. A technician then collects the blood with a small sterile needle attached to a disposable syringe.

The patient may feel a brief throbbing or cramping at the site of the puncture. After the blood is drawn,the sample must be transported to the laboratory as soon as posible for analysis.

Preparation

There are NO special preparations. Patients have NO restrictions on DRINKING or EATING before the test.

If,the patient is receiving oxygen,the oxygen concentration must remain the same for 20 mins before the test;
if the test is to be taken without oxygen ,the gas must be turn off for 20 mins before the test is taken. The patient also should breath normally during the test.

Aftercare

After the blood has been taken, the technian or the patient applies pressure to be puncture site 10 15 mins to stop the bleeding,and Then places a dressing over the puncture site. Health care workers will observe the patient for signs of bleeding or circulation problems.

RISKS

Risks are very low when the test is done correctly. Risks include bleeding or bruising at the site, Or delayed delayed bleeding from the site. Very rarely,there may be a problem with circulation in the puncture area.

>ABNORMAL

>NORMAL

Results

Result Partial pressure of oxygen

Normal range

Abnormal

Description A low PO2 indicates that the patient is not oxygenating properly, and is hypoxemic. (Note that a low PO2 is not required for the patient to have hypoxia.) At a PO2 of less than 60 mm Hg, supplemental oxygen should be administered. At a PO2 of less than 26 mmHg, the patient is at risk of death and must be oxygenated immediately.

75-100 mm Hg

Other results that differ the normal range.

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide

35-45 mm Hg

the carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) is an indicator of CO2 production and elimination: for a constant metabolic rate, the PCO2 is determined entirely by its elimination through ventilation. A high PCO2(respiratory acidosis, alternatively hypercapnia) indicates underventilation (or, more rarely, a hypermetabolic disorder), a low PCO2 (respiratory alkalosis, alternatively hypocapnia) hyper- or overventilation.

Result Oxygen content (O2CT) Oxygen saturation (SaO2)

Normal range

Abnormal

Description This is the sum of oxygen dissolved in plasma and chemically bound to hemoglobin . Measures how much of the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is carrying oxygen (O2).

15-23% 94-100%

Bicarbonat e (HCO3)

22-26 mEq/L
7.35- 7.47

Other results that differ the normal The HCO3 ion indicates whether range. a metabolic problem is present (Eg:ketoacidosis). A low HCO3indicates metabolic acidosis, a high HCO3 indicates metabolic alkalosis. The pH or H+ indicates if a patient is acidemic or alkalemic.

pH